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Fiji

Official Name:
Republic of Fiji
Region:

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Nilesh Prakash
Position:
Head, Climate Change and International Cooperation Division
Phone:
+679 322 1116
Emails:
nprakash001@economy.gov.fj

Energy profile

Fiji Islands (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

87% of the total number of urban households had access to electricity in 2002, and about 49% of rural households are electrified. It is estimated that about 57% of Fiji's total population have direct access to power supplied by the FEA. Electrification rate in 2009 is estimated to be 75%.The Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) has an extensive grid system on Viti Levu, and three smaller grids on Vanua Levu and Ovalau. Vanua Levu, the second largest island, has no widespread electricity grid, partly due to the high cost of diesel generation and sparsely spread population of the entire area. The Savusavu grid is powered by an 800kW hydro scheme and a 1.04 MW diesel plant. The electricity grid will not extend to other islands in the foreseeable future. This means that there are communities comprising about 26% of Fiji’s 837,000-strong population that could be served by off-grid solar systems.The FEA’s operations on the three major islands – Viti Levu, Vanua Levu & Levuka (Ovalau), with a total peak load of about 138 MW, supplies about 740 GWh of energy per annum. It serves a total customer base of over 147,000 comprising of over 134,000 domestic customers and remaining belonging to Commercial or Industrial sector. The FEA’s prominent transmission and distribution assets include over 140 route km of 132 kV transmission lines, about 8,300 route km of medium voltage & low voltage distribution lines and over 70,000 poles, and 4,200 distribution substations (pole & ground mounted) with over 50 power transformers. 

Renewable energy potential

Biomass energyThe biomass resource supplies at least 50% of the energy consumed throughout Fiji. Rural households use firewood for cooking. There is also some trade in firewood in urban areas. Coconut residues are used for copra drying. The bulk of the bagasse available at the sugar mills is used to produce process heat and electricity for internal use. Current installed capacity is 5 MW at the Lautoka sugar mill, 4 MW at the Ba mill, 3 MW at the Rakiraki mill, and 4 MW at Labasa. In 2008, about 3% of the electricity consumed in Fiji was produced using bagasse and other biomass. Tropik Woods Ltd. uses forestry residue (9.3 MW capacity) and Fiji Sugar Corporation uses bagasse as feedstock. There are also IPP initiatives including Vuda Biomass with 17 MW capacity, iViti with 10 MW and Delta Renewable.BiofuelBiodiesel Group Co., Ltd. is currently the only one company making biodiesel with production capacity of 144,000 litres. Biofuel International is at research phase, and can produce 25 million litres of biodiesel (pongamia as feedstock) with the allocation of 5,000 hectares of land. Niu Industries has production capacity of 500,000 litres of renewable diesel (blend of coconut oil with diesel). In addition, the government funds mills in Koro, Rotuma and Cicia with production capacity of 170,000 litres each. The government aims to have ~20 such mills by 2013. Copra Millers (Fiji) Ltd. is also funded by the government and produces 2.2 million litres with production capacity of 26 million litres of coconut oil. With regard to bioethanol production, Fiji Sugar Corporation produces about 100,000 tonnes of molasses. Currently, 90% of molasses are exported. There is a potential for 34 million litres of ethanol annually. As average demand for E10 blend is 8 million litres, surplus (~26 million litres) can be exported.Geothermal energyThere is some evidence of geothermal resources (in the form of hot rocks) in two Vanua Levu sites. Preliminary assessments by the Department of Energy (DoE) indicate that there is the potential for steam generation in Labasa, with an estimated sub-surface temperature at 500 m below ground of 125 ºC. Around Savusavu the estimate is 160ºC. Deep drilling is necessary to verify the estimated resource data, although the theoretical potential of this resource is very high. 14 potential feasible sites have been identified; and power volume from these sites is 38 MW (15 MW from Viti Levu and 23 MW from Vanua Levu). However, exploration costs to ascertain the resource are the challenges.Ocean energy The ocean surrounding Fiji has the resource to fuel an ocean-thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant. A Japanese consortium determined that off the Viti Levu Coral Coast, the temperature difference between the surface ocean water and the deep ocean waters, at depths of at least 800 m, was on the average 22 ºC. They conceptualised a multiple purpose land-based 1 MW OTEC plant for Somosomo Bay, in March 1991.  Information is available in: Ocean Wave Energy in the South Pacific: the resource and its utilisation (Barstow and Falnes, November 1996, SOPAC Report 234).HydropowerThe DoE is monitoring potential micro-hydro sites in rivers and creeks, to identify sites to produce electricity for communities not served by the FEA grid. The DoE has published preliminary data collected from roughly 200 sites around the country.  The total installed micro-hydro capacity is about 960 kW (84% at Wainikeu or Wainiqeu, a system operated by the FEA). It is estimated that the four additional sites where the DoE is planning to install monitoring equipment might represent a combined 500 kW potential.A full feasibility study for the Qaliwana Hydro Project has been completed and has been evaluated against other potential hydro projects such as the Wailoa Downstream Hydro Project before the final development plan is drawn up. In September 2008, a contract to construct the 40MW Nadarivatu Renewable Hydro Power Project was awarded to Sinohydro Corporation Limited of China. When commissioned, the renewable generation output from the power station will greatly assist the FEA in moving towards achieving its renewable energy target of 90% from renewable resources by 2011.The Nadarivatu Renewable Hydro Power station is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2011. It will add 40 MW of power capacity, generate 101 million of units of electricity in an average rainfall year, and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 66,000 tonne each year.Solar energyThere is continuing data being acquired from the Nabouwalu Hybrid Power Station (since 1996) with an annual average insolation of 4.5 kWh/m2/day.  In addition, there is a two-year record available for Vunatovau from the Southern Pacific Monitoring Project (1995-1996). The annual average insolation for this location is 4.8 kWh/m2/day.To utilize the solar radiation, solar PV has been used to charge batteries and provide household solar lighting. During 1987, over 100 solar home systems (SHS) were installed in cane settlements in Viti Levu. They were maintained by the DoE with a monthly fee of F$4.50. Due to under-sizing of systems, customer dissatisfaction was high. However, currently there are about 1200 SHS installed in Vanua Levu and nearby Islands; and 2,000 SHS are to be installed in 2010. The system consists of a 100 W solar panel, lights (1 x 1W, 1 x 7W and 3 x 11W), and one 12 V power point, powered by 100 Amp-hours.Wind energyPrasad (1999), in a study on wind power in Fiji, determined that the average wind power flux over the windiest areas is between 42 and 140 W/m2 (wind speeds between 4 and 6 m/s). There is good potential for the use of small scale wind turbines, using battery storage to provide power to remote communities and for remote telecommunications. There is another wind resource analysis, carried out for two major islands in the Fiji, using wind data from July 1993 to June 2005 from NASA data base. Annual seasonal variation in wind speed, direction and power density were analysed for various locations. The average yearly wind speed for Fiji is between 5 and 6 m/ s with average power density of 160 W/m2. Site specific validation showed no significant relationship between NASA and experimental data. The wind resource at Laucala Bay has a power density of 131 W/m2 at 55 m. The expected annual energy produced from a 275 kW GEV Vergnet wind turbine is 344 MWh. The capacity factor of the turbine is expected to be 14.3% with an overall efficiency of 37%. The electricity generated would cost $FJ 0.27 per kWh. The system will payback its worth in 12.2 years.Currently a wind farm has been setup in Butoni, Sigatoka, which consists of 37_275 kVA Vergnet wind turbines connected to the grid. The total capacity of the wind turbine is 10MW, anticipated to produce annually 11.5 GWh of electricity for FEA. The Butoni wind farm performed satisfactory in 2010 with a total generation output of 6.42 million units of electricity, resulting in thermal fuel cost savings of about $2.06 million and reducing GHG emissions by about 4,211 tonnes in 2010 alone.

Energy framework

Fiji does not have laws that deal specifically with energy; however, moves are under-way to have an Energy Legislation in place by around 2011. At the moment, there is a National Energy Policy that provides the guiding principles with respect to the energy sector. Fiji also has an Environment Management Act (EMA – 2005) that deals with issues pertaining to the protection of the environment.National Energy Policy (2006)The development and approval in 2006 of the National Energy Policy (NEP) by the cabinet has provided a common framework for both the public and private sector to work towards the optimum utilisation of energy resources, for the overall growth and development of the economy. The policy focuses on four key strategic areas, that include;National Energy Planning,Energy Security,the Power Sector, andRenewable Energy Development.With challenges confronting the sector, summarily the approach intends to strengthen the energy supply sources, and simultaneously manage the demand for energy. Thus, the government further plans to develop energy legislation based on the NEP.Fiji has a Biofuel Program including some standards. Diesel standards has been amended to allow 5% (max.) biodiesel to be blended with diesel (E5); and Gasoline standards has been amended to allow 10% (max.) of ethanol to be blended with gasoline (E10). They are currently voluntary as the lack of production capacity prevents the mandatory status.Fiscal incentives for Renewables include: lower duty for diesel which is used for blending with biodiesel; 10 year tax holiday for a taxpayer undertaking a new activity in processing agricultural commodities into bio-fuels from 2009 to 2014; and vat exemption for items necessary for biofuel and renewable energy production. In addition, there were two tariff increases implemented in all categories in 2010, approved by the Cabinet and the Fiji Commerce Commission. Together with the tariff increase, the government VAT subsidies for Domestic customers were also removed and full vat was charged on all domestic bills from November 2010.DoE is working on Net Metering and Feed in Tariff.Rural Electrification PolicyIn 1993, the Cabinet endorsed a revised Rural Electrification Policy. Under the policy, any rural village or settlement is entitled to request government assistance for electrification. A Rural Electrification Unit (REU) was set up within the DoE to facilitate the implementation of the policy. Since 1993, approximately 900 villages have applied to the DoE for electrical services. In 2010, 45 REPs funded by the government were completed and commissioned.The majority of villages and settlements that cannot be served by FEA line extension could be served with solar-home-systems (SHSs) with the government stations, and surrounding villages and settlements with hybrid power systems (HPSs). In addition, there are a few villages with appropriate hydro resources and relatively modest needs, which could also be provided service using the model under evaluation for SHSs. Under the 1993 policy there are three electrical service choices:(1) The extension of the FEA grid or a government station mini-grid to provide 24 hours per day service;(2) A diesel generator with a mini-grid system for evening lights and small electrical appliances; and(3) Renewable energy systems: solar photovoltaics (PV) or small hydro for evening lights.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.

  • Local Energy Efficiency Policy Calculator (LEEP-C)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The tool provides the opportunity to analyse the impacts of 23 different policy types from 4 energy-using sectors:

    1. public buildings,
    2. commercial buildings,
    3. residential buildings, and
    4. transportation.

    Impacts of policy choices are analysed in terms of energy savings, cost savings, pollution reduction, and other outcomes over a time period set by the user. The tool also allows for assigning the weights to different policy options based on community priorities in order to tailor policy development process to community goals.

  • Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Switzerland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The Institut International de l'Écologie Industrielle et de l'Économie Verte is an establishment of reflection, research and practice of industrial ecology. The Institute has an engineering division and an expertise cluster, which enables the Institute to identify new technologies linked to industrial ecology and to advise through a specific methodology adapted to local contexts. The project managers work on the practical execution of mandates and on the implementation of the industrial ecology with a particular attention to Switzerland and developing countries.

  • APEC Climate Center

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Korea
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    APCC is a organization that catalyzes climate information-based solutions through three interconnected pillars of work: climate prediction and information services; climate information application and climate change response; and capacity building. APC freely provides value-added, reliable, and timely climate prediction, while serving as a key climate information center to distribute climate data, prediction and related tools, in order to bridge technology gaps globally.