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Egypt

Official Name:
Arab Republic of Egypt

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. M. Hamdy Darrag
Position:
Director of Climate Change Technology Department
Phone:
+2 010 17 000 179
Emails:
darrag313@yahoo.com

Energy profile

Egypt (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Egyptian electrification rates in 2008 were approximately 99.4% according to the International Energy Agency (IEA); this rate is among the highest of the continent with total urban access to electricity, and a 99% access rate in rural areas. However, approximately 500,000 people still lack access to electricity.Currently, grid connected renewable energy projects in Egypt enjoy the right of access and priority in dispatching.The national grid primarily consists of 500, 400, 220 and 66 kV transmission and distribution lines.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyDespite undergoing radical advances, solar technology penetration is negligible considering that  Egypt receives some of the highest solar radiation in the world and 96% of the country is desert, making it a prime location for a variety of solar energy technologies and applications. Egypt is located within the Sun Belt countries with annual global solar insolation ranging from 1750 to 2680 kWh/m2/year from North to South and annual direct normal solar irradiance ranging from 1970 to 3200 kWh/m2/year from North to South, with relatively steady daily profile and small variations making it very favourable for utilization.Both the Solar Radiation Atlas and the German Aerospace Centre estimate Egypt’s economically viable solar potential in the range of 74 billion MWh/year, or many times Egypt’s current electricity production. The Energy Research Centre at Cairo University’s Faculty of Engineering estimates that 6 MW of solar photovoltaics are currently installed in Egypt. In addition, a 150 MW integrated-solar combined-cycle power plant is under construction in Kureimat, with a solar component of 30 MW.Wind energyThe first phase of the Wind Atlas for Egypt, produced by The New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA) and the Risø National Laboratory (Denmark), was finalized in March 2003 with the publication of the detailed Wind Atlas for the Gulf of Suez. This atlas includes wind data for 13 sites covering the decade from 1991 to 2001. The second phase of the project, the Wind Atlas for Egypt: Measurements and Modelling 1991–2005, was released in 2006, covering Egypt’s entire land area based on a comprehensive eight-year wind-resource assessment. The purpose of the Wind Atlas was to establish a meteorological basis for assessing Egypt’s wind energy resources in six designated regions: the northwest coast, the northeast coast, the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Suez, the Red Sea, and the western desert. The majority of the assessed areas exist in state-owned lands, making them ideal for development.According to the Wind Atlas, the western part of the Gulf of Suez is home to some of Egypt’s best wind resources. Here, average yearly wind speeds surpass 7 m/s, and there is potential for some 20,000 MW of wind capacity. The Gulf of Suez is the region where both short- and medium-term plans for Egypt’s wind energy developments are focused.As of 2008/2009, Egypt’s New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), the authority affiliated with the Ministry of Energy that manages Egypt’s clean energy portfolio, has installed 425 MW of wind power, including a wind farm at Zafarana.  Zafarana has been operational since 2004 and has a capacity of 360 MW, where wind averages 9 m/s. Egypt has registered Zafarana as a CDM project. Though wind penetration is small at present, Egypt’s experience with wind projects goes back 20 years, with a plant of installed capacity of 405 MW.Various studies indicate that electricity generated from wind resources represents the best opportunity for Egypt’s renewable energy to reach competitive prices with electricity generated from oil and gas.Biomass energyThe biomass resource in Egypt has been estimated at 40 million tons/year, or 3,600 ktoe/year. Small- and large-scale biogas digesters have been proposed for power generation. Approximately 800 small digesters for home use are installed, whilst large-scale digesters are still being implemented. Bagasse and cattle manure have also been mooted as potential biogas feedstocks. The gasification of sewage sludge in waste water is already being used in the 23 MW El-Gabal El-Asfer plant, and agricultural wastes have been identified as having a high potential in the country.Geothermal energyNo electricity generation based on geothermal resources is currently installed; however, thermal use amounts to approximately 1 MW. Several geothermal spas are located across the country, primarily with temperatures in the region of 28-70 ºC.HydropowerIn 2009, renewable energy, mainly hydropower, accounted for 12% of Egypt’s electricity generation. Government policy has consistently emphasized hydropower, but there is a view that most potential hydro resources have been already developed. Egypt’s hydropower potential is about 3664 MW with an estimated energy of 15,300 GWh/annum. There are currently five main hydropower generation locations, all of which located on the River Nile. Almost all the electricity generation comes from the Aswan High Dam and the Aswan Reservoir Dams. The Aswan High Dam power project has a theoretical generating capacity of 2.1 GW, although low water levels often prevent it from operating anywhere near design capacity. An ongoing refurbishment program is expected to extend the operational life of the turbines by about 40 years and increase generating capacity at the dam to 2.4 GW. The remaining hydropower sites are considered very modest when compared to the Aswan sites.

Energy framework

In the early 80s the Egyptian government noted that the traditional energy resources would be inadequate to meet future needs. In 1982, a national strategy for the development of energy conservation measures and renewable energy application was adopted and in 1986 the new and Renewable Energy Authority was established in order to be the focal point for renewable activities in Egypt.The Renewable Energy Strategy of 2008 marked a vital step in this effort, setting a target of reaching 20% of total electrical energy mix from renewable energy (RE), including hydropower by 2020. Taking into account current hydropower capacity, and projections for that hydropower, it is expected that 12% of contribution from renewable energy sources other than hydropower will need to be added by 2020 (i.e., equivalent to installed capacity of 7,200 MW). The Strategy identifies concrete steps, including large pilot implementation of solar projects and electrification of rural areas, development of mini and micro hydropower plants with capacity of less than 100 MW, assessing potential for geothermal and developing 1,000 MW of biomass from agricultural and municipal waste. The Strategy also promotes the local manufacturing of RE equipment, including incentives for activities supporting localization of RE technologies. As part of its efforts to implement the Strategy, EgyptEra coordinates with Egypt’s Industrial Modernization Centre (IMC), which is responsible for direct contact with manufacturers.A proposed feed-in tariff is also to be made available to wind projects, specifically those under 50 MW, in order to promote private-sector participation in the renewable energy sector. The Government hopes that the private sector will contribute roughly 2,500 MW to the country’s renewable energy capacity by 2020.Under Egypt’s five-year plan (2007/2008– 2011/2012), Egypt intends to add 7,750 MW of power generation capacity to meet the expected average annual demand growth rate of 6.38%. For the five-year plan (2012/2013– 2016/2017), an additional 11,100 MW will be needed to meet the expected average annual demand growth rate. Thus Egypt is looking to a portfolio of resources to increase supply, including rapid addition of thermal plants, most of which are combined cycle gas.  In January 2010, the Egyptian government announced that it was considering constructing five independent power projects, with a total capacity of 3,500 MW. Recently built combined cycle plants include Cairo North (1,500 MW), Nubaria (1,500 MW), Talka (750 MW) and El-Kureimart (750 MW).The Egyptian National Plan (2012-2017) includes the implementation of:100 MW concentrated solar power plant, in South Egypt.20 MW photovoltaic grid connected plants, 4 MW every year.The next Egyptian National Plan (2018-2022) has set a target of 23% renewable energy sources by 2022. It will be split into:Installation of 2.550 MW of concentrated solar power.Installation of 500 MW photovoltaic (PV) arrays.Installation of 1.2 million m2  of Solar Water Heaters (SWH).

Source
Static Source:
  • Eco Ltd

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Eco is a boutique management consultancy specialized in the design and formulation of climate change mitigation and adaptation projects. Operating since 2000, Eco has worked with a wide range of international clients such as the AfDB, IFC, World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO, EBRD, GIZ and the European Union.

    Eco has designed over 250 projects in 82 countries across Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. We have assessed markets and designed financial, technology and other strategies and then formulated projects.

  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • Institute of Natural Resources NPC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    South Africa
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    The INR is a non-profit organization that works towards the wise use of natural resources in pursuit of sustainability for the good of the environment and the society, through multidisciplinary applied research. The INR provides strategic and operational support to develop cutting edge solutions that support the resolution of natural resource challenges, in partnership with government, civil society, the private sector and other leading research organizations.

  • Sustainable Capital Advisors

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    SCA provides strategy consulting and financial advisory services to public and private sector organizations seeking to implement sustainable infrastructure projects. Our client engagements involve a diversity of technologies located in countries across the world. Our job is to assist clients "sift through the noise" and develop practical and replicable solutions based on the realities of the financial and energy markets. 

  • International Water Management Institute

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sri Lanka
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    IWMI’s Mission is to provide evidence-based solutions to sustainably manage water and land resources for food security, people’s livelihoods and the environment. IWMI’s Vision is ‘a water-secure world’. IWMI targets water and land management challenges faced by poor communities in the developing countries, and through this contributes towards the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing poverty and hunger, and maintaining a sustainable environment. 

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.