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Denmark

Official Name:
Kingdom of Denmark

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Hans Jakob Eriksen
Position:
Special Advisor
Phone:
+45 3392 2800, +45 4172 9078
Emails:
hajae@kebmin.dk

Energy profile

Denmark (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

As in most countries, the electricity grid was built after the Second World War and designed for central generation, which was characteristic of the energy system. As a consequence, Denmark’s transmission network operator has experienced problems to balance its grid and several times the system was close to a breakdown (Jensen 2002). This is why the expansion and transformation of the grid is one of the main topics of the Danish electricity agenda. Denmark is a pioneering country when it comes to implementing and testing new network concepts. The transmission operator Energinet.dk is currently implementing the cell concept, shifting more responsibilities for network control to the distribution networks and enabling islanding of individual cells.

Renewable energy potential

SolarOver the last few years, large solar installations for district heating have been established in a number of locations in Denmark. The contribution from solar energy is expected to be 16 ktoe by 2020 as opposed to 10 ktoe in 2005 (0.4 PJ in 2005, 0.7 in 2020)Wind EnergyDenmark is one of the most aggressive countries in the world for wind power and has a relatively long history using it. Since 1988 Denmark has built nearly 3,400 MW of wind capacity. Currently, wind power provides about 20% of Denmark’s electricity through more than 5,200 wind turbines, and this is an increase from 2% in 1990. The vast majority of this wind turbine-generated electricity is onshore, but as available land is becoming scarce, an increasing number of wind turbines are found in offshore wind farms.According to the Danish Energy Agency, this aggressive approach to wind power has reduced the country’s dependence on fossil fuels and has made Denmark one of the largest European energy technology exporters. Their data show that since 1980 Danish GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has increased by 78%, their energy consumption has remained flat, and their CO2 emissions have decreased by more than most any other European country.Denmark’s goal is to meet 50% of its electricity needs with wind energy by 2025, including a near doubling of their wind power capacity to 6,000 MW. They are also investing in the infrastructure to support electric cars, so that wind power will be powering some of their transportation needs.Biomass and BiogasIn 2010, solid biomass and biogas contributed 3,400 GWh to gross renewable electricity production, representing 26% of total gross renewable electricity production. All of this electricity was generated in the form of CHP. Biomass‐fuelled CHP plants have been a common part of the Danish electricity and district heating supply for decades. There are over 200 district heating plants and 15 CHP plants fuelled by solid biomass and 30 biogas‐fired CHP plants.Biomass consumption (wood and straw) in the Danish electricity sector is divided between both power stations and local CHP plants. Around two‐thirds of the straw and wood is consumed by power stations, while one‐third is fired at the 15 or so small local biomass plants. Some 147 local CHP plants – with a combined capacity of 80 MW – use biogas as a fuel.  In 2010, power generation from biofuels totalled 3,068 GWh. It has remained relatively stable from one year to the next, but biofuels‐based power generating capacity has been increasing in Denmark in recent years.Denmark is a leader in terms of energy produced from waste, followed by Switzerland and far ahead of IEA third‐ and fourth‐placed Sweden and Austria. In terms of consumption, 91% of waste is used in CHP plants and the remaining part in heat‐only plants. In 2009, nearly half of solid biomass supply was used for heating purposes in the residential sector, 29% in CHP plants, and 17% in heat-producing plants.HydroHydropower makes a very small contribution to renewable electricity supply. Denmark has 38 small‐scale hydroelectric power plants, which in 2009 generated a total of 19,795 MWh. The largest plant, Tangeværket at Gudenåen, has an installed capacity of 3.9 MW.

Energy framework

Energy Strategy 2050: From Coal, Oil, and Gas to Green EnergyThe hallmark of Denmark’s energy policy is independence from fossil fuels. In fact, the Danish Government’s February 2011 Energy Plan, called “Energy Strategy 2050: From Coal, Oil, and Gas to Green Energy”, states this overall goal in its title. The plan states its main goal is independence from coal, oil, and gas by 2050, which in turn will result in Denmark maintaining a secure stable supply of affordable energy and helping to limit global climate change. In addition, achieving this goal will provide economic opportunities for Danish green energy technologies within its own borders as well as in the global market, and will minimize Denmark competing for a shrinking supply of fossil fuel supplies, many of which are in unstable countries.In March 2012 a new political agreement on energy was reached in Denmark. This Energy Agreement is an important step towards fulfilling the 2050 target. 95% of the members of Parliament -i.e. all parties but one- stand behind this Agreement. The Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy in 2050. The Agreement covers the period 2012 – 2020.National Renewable Energy Action PlanIn 2020, the Danish Renewable Energy Action Plan expects almost 52% of total electricity consumption to be met by renewables. Almost 60% of this will be wind, with biomass, essentially, making up the rest.The NREAP thus indicates that Denmark is on track to meet and, indeed, exceed its 30% RES target by 0.4 percentage points. In the long term, Danish plans are for 100% renewables. The document indicates that the excess RES is available for use in co-operation mechanisms with other Member States. Denmark’s action plan focuses to a large extent on managing consumption, and only a very slight increase in electricity demand is expected between 2010 and 2020. Moreover, the plan indicates that future policies aim to reduce energy consumption in 2020 by 4% compared to 2006.The Agreement lists a large number of actions to be taken during the period 2012 – 2020. These actions will result in more than 35% renewable energy in final energy consumption in 2020. As the Agreement does not go beyond 2020, it does not lay out in detail the path from 2020 to 2050, which will lead to 100% renewable energy in 2050. The Agreement includes 62 actions covering the following areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy for electricity production, district heating, combined heat and power production, use of renewable energy in households and industries, smart grids, biogas production, use of electricity and renewable energy for transport, research, development and demonstration and finally financing of the Agreement.Feed-in tariff (see below section “regulatory framework”)

Source
Static Source:
  • Country Energy Profiles (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication

    This reegle website provides comprehensive energy profiles for all countries with information from reliable sources such as UN or the World Bank. Profile information includes national policies on energy-related issues, visualized statistics, renewable energy potentials maps, national projects programmes, and key stakeholders.

  • Communication on Energy Efficiency: Delivering the 20% Target

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This European Commission (EC) report communicates the planned efforts and those already undertaken by the EC to meet the commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% compared to projections for 2020. Projected next steps for the European Union (EU) are increasing energy efficiency of both products and buildings, as well as promoting co-generation in power plants.

  • Greening Household Behaviour: The Role of Public Policy

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This report evaluated the role of public policy in encouraging conservation in a residential setting. It interprets the results of an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) survey sent to over 10,000 households within the OECD area on home water use, energy use, personal transport choices, organic food consumption, and waste generation and recycling. Analysis of the responses offers insight into the market, demographic, and policy factors that actually influence people’s environmental behaviour and consumption patterns.

  • Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party

    Type: 
    Publication
    Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party
    Publication date:

    This summary document provides an overview of energy efficiency policies and planning across all sectors in International Energy Agency (IEA) member countries. It contains an overview of changes in policy context by country, as well as updated data on energy consumption and intensity. The majority is devoted to summarizing significant policy developments in the following sectors: buildings; transport, lighting, and appliances; public sector; and industry and energy management.

  • Gadgets and Gigawatts

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This report assesses the proliferation of energy efficient appliances in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries and compares both usage and energy intensity trends between OECD member countries and non-OECD countries.

  • Technology Action Plan: Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency

    Type: 
    Publication
    Technology Action Plan: Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency
    Publication date:

    To help government and industry better understand how to substantively improve industrial efficiency performance, this report highlights best practices and policies that are successfully advancing the use of efficient industrial technologies across the world. Within this context, this report outlines potential goals for participating countries and recommends specific priority actions to accelerate technology development and deployment.

  • Building Energy Efficiency Policies (BEEP) Database

    Type: 
    Publication

    This database is intended to be a comprehensive collection of building energy efficiency policies from select countries around the world. Policymakers can access this database to find out what policies and incentive schemes are being implemented around the world. The three focus areas of the database are building energy codes, building energy labels, and incentive schemes.

  • Best Practices in Designing and Implementing Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes

    Type: 
    Publication
    Best Practices in Designing and Implementing Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes
    Publication date:

    This report presents a variety of energy efficiency obligations schemes and their effects on energy providers and targeted outcomes. Based on 19 case studies from around the world, the report finds there are generally three types of energy efficiency obligations schemes based on how the quantitative energy savings target has been set. The report presents best practices for designing and implementing energy efficiency obligation schemes.

  • Global Building Performance Network's Policy Comparative Tool

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:

    This website allows users to examine building codes and their efficacy from around the world. Detailed information about each of the building codes and its country's deployment programs is offered along with a graphing and data-generating program that makes additional analysis possible.