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Denmark

Official Name:
Kingdom of Denmark

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Hans Jakob Eriksen
Position:
Special Advisor
Phone:
+45 3392 2800, +45 4172 9078
Emails:
hajae@kebmin.dk

Energy profile

Denmark (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

As in most countries, the electricity grid was built after the Second World War and designed for central generation, which was characteristic of the energy system. As a consequence, Denmark’s transmission network operator has experienced problems to balance its grid and several times the system was close to a breakdown (Jensen 2002). This is why the expansion and transformation of the grid is one of the main topics of the Danish electricity agenda. Denmark is a pioneering country when it comes to implementing and testing new network concepts. The transmission operator Energinet.dk is currently implementing the cell concept, shifting more responsibilities for network control to the distribution networks and enabling islanding of individual cells.

Renewable energy potential

SolarOver the last few years, large solar installations for district heating have been established in a number of locations in Denmark. The contribution from solar energy is expected to be 16 ktoe by 2020 as opposed to 10 ktoe in 2005 (0.4 PJ in 2005, 0.7 in 2020)Wind EnergyDenmark is one of the most aggressive countries in the world for wind power and has a relatively long history using it. Since 1988 Denmark has built nearly 3,400 MW of wind capacity. Currently, wind power provides about 20% of Denmark’s electricity through more than 5,200 wind turbines, and this is an increase from 2% in 1990. The vast majority of this wind turbine-generated electricity is onshore, but as available land is becoming scarce, an increasing number of wind turbines are found in offshore wind farms.According to the Danish Energy Agency, this aggressive approach to wind power has reduced the country’s dependence on fossil fuels and has made Denmark one of the largest European energy technology exporters. Their data show that since 1980 Danish GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has increased by 78%, their energy consumption has remained flat, and their CO2 emissions have decreased by more than most any other European country.Denmark’s goal is to meet 50% of its electricity needs with wind energy by 2025, including a near doubling of their wind power capacity to 6,000 MW. They are also investing in the infrastructure to support electric cars, so that wind power will be powering some of their transportation needs.Biomass and BiogasIn 2010, solid biomass and biogas contributed 3,400 GWh to gross renewable electricity production, representing 26% of total gross renewable electricity production. All of this electricity was generated in the form of CHP. Biomass‐fuelled CHP plants have been a common part of the Danish electricity and district heating supply for decades. There are over 200 district heating plants and 15 CHP plants fuelled by solid biomass and 30 biogas‐fired CHP plants.Biomass consumption (wood and straw) in the Danish electricity sector is divided between both power stations and local CHP plants. Around two‐thirds of the straw and wood is consumed by power stations, while one‐third is fired at the 15 or so small local biomass plants. Some 147 local CHP plants – with a combined capacity of 80 MW – use biogas as a fuel.  In 2010, power generation from biofuels totalled 3,068 GWh. It has remained relatively stable from one year to the next, but biofuels‐based power generating capacity has been increasing in Denmark in recent years.Denmark is a leader in terms of energy produced from waste, followed by Switzerland and far ahead of IEA third‐ and fourth‐placed Sweden and Austria. In terms of consumption, 91% of waste is used in CHP plants and the remaining part in heat‐only plants. In 2009, nearly half of solid biomass supply was used for heating purposes in the residential sector, 29% in CHP plants, and 17% in heat-producing plants.HydroHydropower makes a very small contribution to renewable electricity supply. Denmark has 38 small‐scale hydroelectric power plants, which in 2009 generated a total of 19,795 MWh. The largest plant, Tangeværket at Gudenåen, has an installed capacity of 3.9 MW.

Energy framework

Energy Strategy 2050: From Coal, Oil, and Gas to Green EnergyThe hallmark of Denmark’s energy policy is independence from fossil fuels. In fact, the Danish Government’s February 2011 Energy Plan, called “Energy Strategy 2050: From Coal, Oil, and Gas to Green Energy”, states this overall goal in its title. The plan states its main goal is independence from coal, oil, and gas by 2050, which in turn will result in Denmark maintaining a secure stable supply of affordable energy and helping to limit global climate change. In addition, achieving this goal will provide economic opportunities for Danish green energy technologies within its own borders as well as in the global market, and will minimize Denmark competing for a shrinking supply of fossil fuel supplies, many of which are in unstable countries.In March 2012 a new political agreement on energy was reached in Denmark. This Energy Agreement is an important step towards fulfilling the 2050 target. 95% of the members of Parliament -i.e. all parties but one- stand behind this Agreement. The Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy in 2050. The Agreement covers the period 2012 – 2020.National Renewable Energy Action PlanIn 2020, the Danish Renewable Energy Action Plan expects almost 52% of total electricity consumption to be met by renewables. Almost 60% of this will be wind, with biomass, essentially, making up the rest.The NREAP thus indicates that Denmark is on track to meet and, indeed, exceed its 30% RES target by 0.4 percentage points. In the long term, Danish plans are for 100% renewables. The document indicates that the excess RES is available for use in co-operation mechanisms with other Member States. Denmark’s action plan focuses to a large extent on managing consumption, and only a very slight increase in electricity demand is expected between 2010 and 2020. Moreover, the plan indicates that future policies aim to reduce energy consumption in 2020 by 4% compared to 2006.The Agreement lists a large number of actions to be taken during the period 2012 – 2020. These actions will result in more than 35% renewable energy in final energy consumption in 2020. As the Agreement does not go beyond 2020, it does not lay out in detail the path from 2020 to 2050, which will lead to 100% renewable energy in 2050. The Agreement includes 62 actions covering the following areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy for electricity production, district heating, combined heat and power production, use of renewable energy in households and industries, smart grids, biogas production, use of electricity and renewable energy for transport, research, development and demonstration and finally financing of the Agreement.Feed-in tariff (see below section “regulatory framework”)

Source
Static Source:
  • Country Energy Profiles (Website)

    Type: 
    Publication

    This reegle website provides comprehensive energy profiles for all countries with information from reliable sources such as UN or the World Bank. Profile information includes national policies on energy-related issues, visualized statistics, renewable energy potentials maps, national projects programmes, and key stakeholders.

  • Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Region

    Type: 
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    Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Region
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This information paper complements the International Energy Agency's 2011 report, "Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice" (http://www.iea.org/w/bookshop/add.aspx?id=414), and is intended to provide more detailed information on renewable energy markets, policies, and deployment. The paper provides information about current levels of renewable energy deployment worldwide.

  • Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology

    Type: 
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    Renewable Energy: Markets and Prospects by Technology
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This paper complements the International Energy Agency's 2011 report, "Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice" (http://www.iea.org/w/bookshop/add.aspx?id=414), and is intended to provide an overview of the following renewable technologies, categorizing them by their position along the development cycle: bioenergy for electricity and heat, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro energy, ocean/tidal energy, solar energy (solar photovoltaics, concentrating solar power, and solar heating), and wind energy

  • Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Type: 
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    Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This paper complements the International Energy Agency's 2011 report, "Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice" (http://www.iea.org/w/bookshop/add.aspx?id=414), and is intended to provide more detailed information on existing policies governing renewable energy deployment as well as to guide policymakers in both developed and developing economies create future policies to aid in the deployment of renewable energy.

  • Strategies to Finance Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Projects: An Economic Development and Infrastructure Approach

    Type: 
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    Strategies to Finance Large-Scale Deployment of Renewable Energy Projects: An Economic Development and Infrastructure Approach
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report provides insight into the current practice and trends in financing renewable energy and presents the key challenges that emerge when following a large-scale renewable energy deployment scenario. Policies and key policy design aspects that can facilitate this process are discussed along with experiences and lessons learned. The report presents recommendations to address these challenges using four main strategies: clean energy as a new economic development system, finance, innovation and public policy.

  • Photovoltaic Geographical Information System

    Type: 
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    Sectors:

    This tool provides a geographical inventory of solar energy resources and an assessment of the electricity generation from photovoltaic systems in Europe, Africa, and southwest Asia. The tools allows for analysis of the technical, environmental, and socio-economic factors of solar electricity generation. Users may access maps and posters generated using the tool, as well as technical publications and papers.

  • Renewable Electricity in Europe: Current State, Drivers, and Scenarios for 2020

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    Renewable Electricity in Europe: Current State, Drivers, and Scenarios for 2020
    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report assesses the ability of the European Union (EU) to reach its mandate of generating 20% of its energy from renewable energy sources by 2020. The study also describes the status and historical development of the EU renewable power sector. Different scenarios and projections for renewable electricity are compared, and the implications of the new variable power generation capacity on the electricity grids and market are studied.

  • Small Wind Turbines: Global Market Size, Analysis by Power Range, Regulations and Competitive Landscape to 2020

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    Publication date:
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    This report analyzes the technology, key drivers, restraints, and market trends in the global small wind turbine (less than 100 kilowatts) market. The cost analysis of major turbine manufacturers in the global wind market is included, as are data on the policies and markets of countries with substantial wind capacity.

  • Renewable Energy Policy Options for China: A Comparison of Renewable Portfolio Standards, Feed-in Tariffs, and Tendering Policies

    Type: 
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    Publication date:
    Sectors:

    This report reviews experiences with renewable portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs, and tendering policies in the United States and European Union and analyzes their advantages and disadvantages. The report concludes with potential application of these policy options in China. The report also outlines key criteria for evaluating success of renewable energy policies.