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Belgium

Official Name:
Kingdom of Belgium

Energy profile

Belgium (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The Belgian grid is part of an interconnected system stretching from Portugal to Poland. The grid comprises some 8,400 km of high-voltage connections (ranging from 380,000 to 30,000 volts), composed of overhead lines and underground connections. The Belgian grid is interconnected with France, the Netherlands and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (projects are also under way on direct interconnections with Great Britain and Germany).

Renewable energy potential

The main renewable contribution in the Belgian energy mix comes from combustible renewable biomass and waste sources. In both regions there is a fast growing electricity generation coming from wind energy. Brussels-Capital has, because of its limited surface and electricity generation capacity, very limited renewable energy facilities, being mainly solar thermal demonstration projects.SolarConsidering all the existing buildings in Belgium, the potential roof surface that can be used to install solar panel equals around 250 km².Wind EnergyOver the last decade, onshore wind capacity has been highly developed in Belgium. In 2010, the Belgian onshore wind production capacity equalled 730 MW. The typical Belgian utilisation rate of wind generators is around 2,135 hours full capacity equivalent. Partially due to the rapid development of this energy source, anti‐wind lobbies are against a further development of new capacities arguing that wind turbines have a negative impact on landscape quality. In response to these criticisms, regional authorities have tried to determine where new windmills could be built. At present, windmills can only be installed in some restricted areas.Studies about renewable energy potential have been conducted both in the Flemish and Walloon regions in order to assess the maximum onshore wind capacities. In so far as Brussels is an almost exclusively urban region, no significant wind potential can be installed there.Different studies have tried to estimate the offshore potential of the Belgian maritime area. Mathys et al, 2010 indicates the maximum energy potential given that the Belgian continental shelf is covered by wind turbines except in some specific zones reserved for maritime navigation, military exercises and some visual limitations. The theoretical potential is estimated in range of 12.6‐16.8 GW. Biomass & BiofuelsIn 2009, biomass and biogas were used to generate 3.5 TWh or 3.8% of gross domestic electricity production. In 2010 5.07 million tonnes of waste was produced in Belgium. Of which 1.75 Mt was incinerated. Nearly all (99.8% of the time) energy was recovered during incineration. Non-renewable waste was used for producing 1.4% of the gross domestic electricity production. 1.9 Mt was recycled and 1 Mt was composted or fermented, only 0.062 Mt was dumped. Ten years earlier this percentage was only 0.71%.HydroIn 2010, hydroelectric net capacity equals 110 MW in Belgium. The hydroelectric potential is already largely used in Belgium and no important development is foreseen in the future. Therefore, the power capacity of this technology is supposed to equal 120 MW in all scenarios.

Energy framework

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) for Belgium was submitted in December 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC is 13% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year exactly matches the target.According to the projection, the most important contribution in the year 2020 is expected from biomass – for renewable heating and cooling (2034 ktoe, 38% of all renewable energy). Second important contribution is expected from biomass for renewable electricity (11.0 TWh or 949 ktoe, 18% of all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from wind power (10.5 TWh or 901 ktoe, 17% of all renewable energy). Wind power contributes with 4.3 GW (10.5 TWh). For solar photovoltaic the 2020 contribution is projected to be 1.3 GW (1.1 TWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 199 ktoe.The two most important biofuels are projected to contribute 698 ktoe (biodiesel) and 91 ktoe (bioethanol / bio-ETBE) by 2020. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts to 9.6 TWh (823 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 1.4 TWh (124 ktoe). The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to 1947 ktoe for solid biomass and 55 ktoe for biogas.In Belgium, electricity from renewable sources is promoted mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates. In general, renewable energy is a regional matter; only offshore wind and hydro power are governed by national regulations. The federal grid operator shall meet public obligations, which include the purchase of green certificates at a minimum price set by law for certain renewable electricity generation technologies. Every region (Wallonia, Flanders, Brussels Capital) has its own standards of support for renewable energy, based on a national framework. Electricity suppliers are obliged to present green certificates to prove that a certain proportion (quota) of the electricity supplied to their final consumers in Belgium was generated from renewable sources. This quota may differ according to the region. The tradable certificates schemes established by the Federal Authority and the Belgian regions can be summarised as follows. In the case of offshore wind energy, there is an obligation of the transmission system operator (Elia) to buy the certificates at a minimum price set by federal legislation and an obligation of sell these certificates on the regional markets. In the case of the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region, the combination of compulsory quotas imposed on suppliers and on minimum feed-in price guarantees imposed on the DSO (Flemish Region) or on the LTSO (Walloon Region) is in place. In the case of the Brussels Capital Region, the obligation is imposed on electricity suppliers to observe a certain quota of green certificates. The system of tradable green certificates knows a number of mechanisms to ensure regular feedback. In the Flemish Region a study is carried out every 3 years to estimate the need for exploitation support to ensure the acceptable profitability of projects. In the Walloon Region: Every 3 years CWaPE must carry out a detailed analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of the different electricity production chains. CWaPE also conducts an annual assessment of the functioning of the market in green certificates and compiles projections on the development of new medium-term installations (5 years).

Source
Static Source:
  • Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Okapi Environmental Consulting Incorporated (OECI) is a private sector organization established in 2011 with the mission to provide quality technical and policy advice on sustainable development. Okapi's work includes project design, management and evaluation, strategic planning, capacity development, resource mobilization, scientific and technical advisory services, technology transfer. Okapi's experience extends in climate-affected sectors such as agriculture, sustainable land and water management, coastal zone management, infrastructure and others.

  • STENUM GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    STENUM has worked for UNIDO, UNEP and IFC in training their Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production Centers and supporting them in the implementation of various activities (education of national experts, consultancy of companies in waster reduction, water minimization, chemicals management and energy efficiency). STENUM has elaborated several manuals and training materials (UNIDO train the trainer toolkit, UNEP PRESME toolkit).

  • Ecofys a Navigant company

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Netherlands
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Ecofys, a Navigant company, is an international energy and climate consultancy focused on sustainable energy for everyone. Founded in 1984, the company is a trusted advisor to governments, corporations, NGOs, and energy providers worldwide. The team delivers powerful results in the energy and climate transition sectors. Working across the entire energy value chain, Ecofys develops innovative solutions and strategies to support its clients in enabling the energy transition and working through the challenges of climate change.

  • Ecosoluzioni Snc

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner

    Research and consulting on policy & market uptake actions in sustainable energy, clean tech, agriculture, waste mngt. and environment. Since 2000, wide-ranging technical assistance experience in climate change adaptation & mitigation related services, including: tech. assessments, business coaching, feasibility analysis, policy/market analysis, policy planning, M & E, partnership facilitation, finance structuring, agro-energy value chains, natural resources management, technology transfer. 

  • Roedl & Partner

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Roedl & Partner is a globally active professional services firm with approximately 4,000 employees and physical presence in 78 countries, including developing countries. One focus area of Roedl & Partner is public Management Consulting, which covers the energy sector. Roedl & Partner's interdisciplinary Renewable Energy team offers comprehensive business, legal, regulatory, and management consulting services to renewable energy sector clients worldwide. Roedl & Partner manages the Geothermal Risk Mitigation Fund (East Africa).

  • Integra Government Services International LLC

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    United States
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    Integra designs, implements, and evaluates international development activities, with a focus on creating opportunities for the poor, expanding access to public infrastructure, promoting social and ecological resilience and strengthening donor programs. Integra has a proven record of innovative approaches yielding lasting results. Integra is a partner of NASA in deploying state-of-the-art Earth Observation technology for REDD+ MRV, while working to build on-the-ground socio-ecological resilience. 

     

  • HEAT - Habitat, Energy Application & Technology

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Germany
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    HEAT is a independent consulting company focussed on the development and implementation of projects for climate and ozone protection. HEAT has a focus on technology cooperation, policy advice for climate protection technologies, particular in the areas of energy efficiency, cooling and refrigeration, F-gases, inventories, roadmaps, carrying out technical and economic feasibility studies and capacity building measures such as training and certification. HEAT is also the Coordination Office of the NDE Germany.

  • World Coal Association

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    United Kingdom
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    World Coal Association is the global industry association formed of major international coal producers and stakeholders. The WCA works to demonstrate and gain acceptance for the role coal plays in achieving a sustainable and lower carbon energy future. World coal organization's regular policy analysis, workshops, media updates and strategic research provide access to  the highest level of information on the global coal industry and its role in energy, climate and sustainable development issues. 

     

  • Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Ireland
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Environmental Research Institute (ERI) is a flagship Institute for Environmental, Marine and Energy research in Ireland. The ERI has over 300 researchers working in interdisciplinary and currently has 45 live research projects focused on climate mitigation, adaptation and understanding. Focus areas include energy modelling, marine renewables, biofuels, energy efficiency, climate adaptation platforms, modelling greenhouse gas fluxes, atmospheric chemistry and carbon liabilities.

  • Urban Poor, Video narrated by Angélique Kidjo, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    Although urban centers are often ill-prepared to meet the basic needs of rapidly expanding populations, the urban poor are incredibly resourceful people, with their own networks and the proven capacity to save and invest in the betterment of their communities. Climate change can stimulate action that improves and transforms the most vulnerable urban communities.