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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Official Name:
Bosnia and Herzegovina

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Research and academic institution
Name:
Mr. Goran Trbic
Phone:
+387 65 621 916
Emails:
trbicgoran@yahoo.com, trbicg@pmfbl.org

Energy profile

Bosnia and Herzegovina (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

National electrification rate (2002):  98.5%The World Bank’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Report indicates that district heating is available only in 40% of urban areas and gas is available in 20% of urban areas.  In non-urban and mixed areas it is virtually unavailable and poverty rates here vary from 20% to 24%.Electricity is transmitted throughout the country via a network of 400 kV (864.93 km), 220 kV (1525.5 km) and 110 kV (3888.82) transmission and distribution lines, with 36 total interconnections.

Renewable energy potential

There are two major renewable energy sources in Bosnia and Herzegovina: hydropower for electricity production and biomass for heat production.According to the CETEOR study, the estimated potential for the renewables is as follows: HydropowerThe theoretical potential for hydro potential in the country is estimated at 8,000 MW. With an installed capacity of 2052 MW (53% of electricity generation), hydropower is already highly significant in Bosnia and Herzegovina, although its potential is far from being fully exploited yet (37% of economic potential). The majority of the installations are more than 30 yrs old. Average precipitation in the country is 1250 mm/m2, the third highest in the region after Montenegro and Slovenia, although these volumes of water are not evenly distributed, neither spatially or temporally. Small hydro is regarded as the most promising source of new renewable energy for the country. Currently, there are ten small, mini or micro hydro plants in operation, with a total capacity of 31 MW. Another two plants are under construction (1.8 MW) and 20 more are planned, totalling a further 28 MW.Wind energyTotal wind potential in the country is estimated at 2,000 MW, of which approximately 900 MW is exploitable. There are promising wind values shown by measurements taken before the war for the region of Trebinje through Mostar to Bugojno, and more up-to-date measurements from meteorological stations and airports which reveal large areas of the country with wind velocities of over 10 m/s at a height of 10 m on 150 days in the year.Biomass energyThe potential is present for biomass energy to provide 14% of the total energy supply, versus the actual 6.5% of the total energy consumption.  An estimated 34.5 PJ of energy is available as biomass resource in the country, predominantly firewood, grain residues, and residues from log processing. Potential co-generation amounts to 410 MW of heat and approximately 200 MW of electricity per annum, with an additional 600 MW of estimated thermal capacity being available from wood wastes. The potential of biogas from the agricultural sector as an energy source has also been recognised, although no in-depth study has currently been conducted. Near Sarajevo, a landfill gas plant with a 350 kW generator has been built with Austrian support; its capacity is due to be doubled in the near future. The electricity is fed into the urban grid. However, remuneration for electricity generated from biomass sources is low in Bosnia, currently standing at 3.81 € cents/kWh.Geothermal powerGeothermal potential has been estimated at 33 MWt. Thermal plants of 50 – 100 MW have also been proposed as a potential power source for district heating programs.Solar energyBosnia and Herzegovina, in common with other nations of the former Yugoslavia, has a good solar regime. Theoretical potential has been estimated at 74.65 PWh per annum, with solar irradiation figures of 1 240 kWh/m²/yr in the north of the country and up to 1 600 kWh/m²/yr in the south. Despite this, current utilisation of solar power is low in the country.

Energy framework

Bosnia and Herzegovina ratified the Energy Charter Treaty and the Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA) in 2001 , which makes a commitment to formulate or implement policies for improving energy efficiency and reducing the negative environmental impact of the energy cycle. An in-depth review of energy efficiency policies of Bosnia and Herzegovina was carried out in 2011, following a regular review report submitted by the Bosnia and Herzegovina authorities in 2008.The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers define the priorities with respect to energy efficiency.  These include:The development and implementation of a clear, well designed energy policy and appropriate action plans to encourage energy saving in households and industry;To reduce energy consumption; use existing and available technologies such as heat insulation, air recycling, more efficient electric appliances etc.As a priority, encourage greater use of public transportation and rationalize use of cars in cities and increase awareness on savings, through increased energy efficiency.“Decision about a Methodology for the Determination of Purchase Prices for Electricity from Renewable Sources with Installed Power up to 5 MW (“OG of FBiH” 32/2002, “OG of RS” 71/2003)” obliges the federal power utility companies of BiH to purchase electricity from renewable sources. The tariff prices are determined by means of applying a corrective coefficient to the current electricity tariff item on 10 (20) kV lines, depending on the renewable resource the electricity was generated from. Values are as follows:Small hydropower plants 0.80 (3.96 € cents/kWh)Power plants on biogas from the waste area and biomass 0.77 (3.81 € cents/kWh)Power plants on wind and geothermal sources 1.00 (4.95 € cents/kWh)Power plants on solar energy 1.10 (5.44 € cents/kWh)On September 2009 the Government of RS issued a draft of the Energy Development Strategy of the Republic of Srpska, with general objectives including the increased use of domestic energy sources to improve energy security, and the use of modern technologies for energy production and consumption, as well as increasing energy efficiency at all levels of the energy sector, and involving the public in making decisions about the construction of energy facilities.

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