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Albania

Official Name:
Republic of Albania

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Ms. Enkelejda Malaj
Position:
Director of the Directory of Integration and Projects
Phone:
+355 422 43578, +355 672 055599
Emails:
enkelejda.malaj@moe.gov.al

Energy profile

Albania (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Population access to electricity (1998, Government of Albania):Rural: ~100%Urban: ~100%The electrification of rural and urban areas in Albania was accelerated in the 1950s and was was essentially completed by 1970.Rehabilitation of the transport-distribution networks has led to a significant reduction in energy efficiency. Electricity losses decreased from an average of 50% up to 2001 to around 35% since then. In 2010, the cost of distribution losses reached 28% of the retail price of electricity, down from 45% in 2008.The overall transmission network is 2,500 km long, including 120 km of 400 kV lines, 1128 km of 220 kV lines, 35 km of 150 kV lines and 1216 km of 110 kV lines, as of 2009.

Renewable energy potential

HydropowerAlbania is known for its enormous hydropower potential. So far, the country has exploited only 35 percent of the total potential. The average output from hydropower is 4,169 GWh. Total hydropower reserves are estimated at around 2,000 MW. Potential annual generation may reach up to 10 TWh. New plants in the southern part of Albania (Vjosa and Devoll) have been successful in exploiting nearby rivers. With an average annual rainfall of 1,500 mm, and an average available head of 600 m, the potential for further large hydropower development is substantial.Apart from the large and medium sized HPPs, there are 83 small hydropower plants (SHPPs) in Albania (owned by KESH) ranging from 0.05 to 1.2 MW. Their utilisation scheme is often incorporated for electricity generation and irrigation. Most of them are connected to the national grid. In reality, these SHPPs are generally in poor working conditions or inoperative because of outdated technology, a lack of spare parts and poor maintenance.Solar energyAs regards the potential, the climate of Albania is typically Mediterranean, with hot and dry summers. Albania has good solar potential in the western portion of the country, with a Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) value of 7.22 kWh/m2/day and a Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI) value of 5.4 kWh/m2/day.The annual radiation varies, between 3.2 kWh/m²/day in the north-eastern part of Albania, and 6 kWh/m²/day in Fier, with a country average of 4 kWh/m²/day, indicating a promising country-wide potential. The Ministry of Energy plans to install solar panels that will provide about 2,6 PJ of energy by 2015. Domestic solar panels are available on the market, and the UNDP is supporting a national program to install 50,000 m2 of new solar panelling from 2007 to 2012, through a system of grants and fiscal incentives. Solar thermal also holds a good potential in the country, particularly for providing hot water in the services sector.Geothermal powerThere are many thermal springs and wells in Albania, which represent a real potential for geothermal energy. The most important resources explored until now are located in the northern part of the Kruja geothermal area, from Lixha Elbasan in the south to Ishmi north of Tirana. The values of the specific reserves vary between 38.5 and 39.6 GJ/m². The southern part of the Kruja area has resources of 20.63 GJ/m². In the Ardenica geothermal area, the specific reserves amount to 0.39 GJ/m². Geothermal resources in the Peshkopia area, situated in the north-eastern region of the country, have been estimated to be similar to those of the northern half of the Kruja geothermal area.Biomass energyBiomass energy could be important in the future, consisting of the following four main resources:- Urban wastes potential of the main Albanian cities (approx. 406 ktoe of potential, estimated for 2010),- Energy potential of agricultural residues (approx. 43,004 GJ, assessed in 1995),- Forestry biomass resources (approx. 460 million GJ, assessed in 1995),- Energy potential of animal residues (approx. 12,740 GJ, assessed in 1995, with a trend increase in the future).Wind energyStudies show that the construction of 20 windmills nearby to 20 pumping stations along the Adriatic coast is feasible. Expected capacity of this implementation is 400 GWh/year of electricity by year 2020, providing roughly 4% of annual electricity demand. Average windspeeds at 10m are 4-6 m/s throughout the country, with an average annual energy density of 150 W/m2. Major plans are in place to develop wind energy in Albania, with a proposed capacity of 1300 MW to be developed in the coming years, including the capacity to export surplus energy from the new wind capacity to Italy via undersea transmission lines.

Energy framework

The updated National Energy Strategy (NES) 2006-2020 aims to develop a safe energy sector to meet the energy requirements of consumers with minimal cost, relying on market principles, taking into consideration certainty of supply, protection of the environment and improvement of the wellbeing of the population. Among the most important objectives of this Strategy are:- Boosting security of supply through the diversification of energy sources and construction of new generation plants and inter-connection lines.- Incentivising the use of renewable energy sources (solar, wind, biomass) in order to maximise the use of local resources.On April 27, 2005 the Albanian Parliament passed an Energy Efficiency Law that:· Creates the legal framework required for the promotion and improvement of the efficient use of energy, throughout the whole of its energy cycle.· Establishes the economical use of energy sources, the establishment of more reliable energy supply conditions, as well as the minimization of environmental impact.· Establishes an Energy Efficiency Fund and Financing of the Fund.Directives set in motion by the EU in recent years have set a 20% target for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) across the EU, with specific country targets based on the current and projected levels of uptake. Albania has set a target of 36% of energy production from RES by 2020.

Source
Static Source:
  • Communicating Extreme Weather Event Attribution: Research from Kenya and India

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Climate change attribution analysis assesses the likelihood that a particular extreme weather event has been made more or less likely as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Communication of extreme event attribution information in the immediate aftermath of an extreme event provides a window of opportunity to inform, educate, and affect a change in attitude or behaviour in order to mitigate or prepare for climate change.

  • Hydrological Zoning

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Hydrological zoning (or simply zoning) is an approach to divide land into different zones based on their hydrological properties. Typically, each type of zone has different land use and development regulations linked to it. This land and water management method aims to protect local water sources from risks of over-abstraction, land salinization, groundwater pollution and waterlogging by managing land use activities based on the assigned hydrological zones.  For example, zones with a high groundwater table, large amounts of surface water (e.g.

  • Pöyry Austria GmbH

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Austria
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Pöyry Austria GmbH, a member of the global Pöyry Group, is a consulting and engineering company with deep expertise with extensive local knowledge to deliver sustainable project investments. For instance, its Hydro Consulting department delivers services in the fields of hydrological and hydraulic modellingand forecasting. Its experts have significant experience in the fields of hydro-meteorology, climate change and climate sensitivity. They also contribute to assess climate risk and ctimate adaptation measures for hydropower and all other sectors of water management.

  • Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Ambientale Università degli Studi di Firenze

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Italy
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    University of Florence traces its origins to the Studium established in 1321.UNIFI applies to CTN with its Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (DICEA) which researches climate change in relation to transport, infrastructure and mobility.There is a team dedicated to mobility which has 20 years experience coordinating international research projects.

  • Energy Efficiency (Policies and Measures Database)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures database provides information on policies and measures taken or planned to improve energy efficiency. The database further supports the IEA G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action mandate to “share best practice between participating governments”, and the agreement by IEA Energy Ministers in 2009 to promote energy efficiency and close policy gaps.

  • Green Resources & Energy Analysis Tool (GREAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The GREAT Tool for Cities is an integrated bottom-up, energy end-use based modelling and accounting tool for tracking energy consumption, production and resource extraction in all economic sectors on a city, provincial or regional level. The model uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) software developed by the Stockholm Environmental Institute and includes a national average dataset on energy input parameters for residential, commercial, transport, industry and agriculture end-use sectors.

  • Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficient Retrofits (COMBAT)

    Type: 
    Publication
    Objective:

    The Commercial Building Analysis Tool for Energy-Efficiency Retrofit (COMBAT) is created to facilitate policy makers, facility managers, and building retrofit practitioners to estimate commercial (public) buildings retrofit energy saving, cost and payback period. Common commercial building models area created, and the retrofit measures and their effects are pre-computed by EnergyPlus by taking different building types and measures interactions into account.