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Andorra

Official Name:
Principality of Andorra
  • Country Energy Profiles (Website)

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    Publication

    This reegle website provides comprehensive energy profiles for all countries with information from reliable sources such as UN or the World Bank. Profile information includes national policies on energy-related issues, visualized statistics, renewable energy potentials maps, national projects programmes, and key stakeholders.

  • Fuel Switching and Climate and Energy Policies in the European Power Generation Sector: A Generalized Leontief Model

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    This study analyzes the role and nature of price-induced fuel switching behaviour between fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) in the western European power sector. It also investigates the impact of a number of public policies on fuel choice in the energy sector during the last 20 years. The empirical results show evidence of notable short-run inter-fuel substitution between oil and gas, particularly in countries where fossil fuels are used extensively for both base and peak load purposes.

  • Robust Marginal Abatement Cost Curves (MACCs)? The Topography of Abatement by Fuelswitching in the European Power Sector

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    This paper employs a simulation model of the European power sector in order to analyze the abatement response to a carbon dioxide (CO2) price through fuel switching. Abatement is shown to depend on the price of allowances, but, more importantly, on the load level of the system and the ratio between natural gas and coal prices. The interplay of these determinants vitiates any simple relation between a CO2 price and abatement and requires the development of more than two-dimensional graphics to illustrate these complex relationships.

  • Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction by Means of Fuelswitching in Electricity Generation: Addressing the Potentials

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    This paper investigates the possibilities that exist for switching coal-fired plants to gas-fired plants, depending on load level. A fixed allowance cost and a variable natural gas price are assumed. The method to address greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials is first illustrated in a methodological case. Next, the GHG emission reduction potentials are addressed for several western European countries together with a relative positioning of their electricity generation. GHG emission reduction potentials are also compared with simulation results.

  • Progress Towards Implementation of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)-Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in Europe

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    Publication
    Progress Towards Implementation of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)-Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) in Europe
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    This paper covers development and demonstration initiatives of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) in Europe. It also presents technical and political barriers blocking the way for early commercialization of the IGCC-CCS technology in Europe.

  • REN21 Renewables 2012 Global Status Report: Europe

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    With a focus on Europe, this webinar—part of a series—presents the findings of REN21’s Renewables 2012 Global Status Report, which addresses the cumulating effect of steady growth in renewable energy markets, support policies and investment over the past years.

  • IRENA Portal for Studies on Renewable Energy Potential

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    This portal provides access to over 10,000 existing references of studies on renewable resources and potentials available worldwide. The information on this portal is presented using interactive flash maps with color codes that indicate the number of references available by country. Renewable energy resources considered include biomass, geothermal energy, hydropower, marine, solar and wind energy.

  • From Vision to Action: A Workshop Report on 100% Renewable Energies in European Regions

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    This report documents a parliamentary workshop held in October 2012 in Denmark that convened policymakers and experts to develop strategies to implement 100% renewable energy targets across Europe. The report presents the workshop findings, including the state of renewable energy technology as well as the policies and strategies necessary to implement and achieve 100% renewable targets. Each section includes a summary of policy and technology recommendations.

  • Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

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    Publication
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    The Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy website, sponsored by NASA, displays the solar radiation, wind speed, atmospheric pressure, air temperature and humidity for a given location around the globe based on a latitude and longitude.

  • Global Change Assessment Tool

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    Publication
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    GCAM is a partial equilibrium model of the world with 14 regions. It is used to project energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and to investigate the impact of climate change policies and technologies for emissions mitigation. GCAM includes an agriculture land-use module and a reduced form carbon cycle and climate module in addition to its incorporation of demographics, resources, energy production and consumption. It operates in 15 year time steps from 1990 to 2095.