HydropowerVanuatu has some hydro potential for supplying urban grids and small rural demands. Progress has been slow on rural hydropower use, primarily due to a lack of long-term monitoring data to support feasibility analysis, high up-front capital costs, and land access issues.Geothermal energyTwelve islands have thermal springs and possible geothermal potential, the best probably on Efate where two prospective sites have been identified and deep drilling has been recommended. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed between UNELCO and Kuth Energy Ltd for the development of a potential 4 MW geothermal plant in the Port Vila region, with explorations having begun in 2009, and completion of the power plant scheduled for 2015 if tests are positive.Solar EnergySolar power has been used previously in Vanuatu in the form of Solar Home Systems (SHS) for rural electrification purposes. The dissemination of SHS is still being supported by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA). The technical potential of solar power in Vanuatu is relatively large, with annual average sunshine hours ranging from 2000 to 2300, at an average insolation of 6 kWh/m2/day.Wave energyIn the early 1990s, Oceanor of Norway monitored Vanuatu’s sea wave potential. Data from buoys suggest an average of 14.4kW per metre of wavefront off Efate. Satellite data suggest 9-20kW/m at various sites. If seawave energy were commercially available, Vanuatu could produce much of its demand (an estimated 22MW) from a few small plants. No assessment has yet been conducted on the potential for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion in Vanuatu.Wind energyThere is very limited data on wind energy potential. A Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS) project monitored wind speeds at an Efate site in the mid 1990s, indicating 5.0m/s average speed in 1995 and 4.2m/s in 1996, well below the 6m/s generally considered to be necessary for economic electricity production. Despite this, UNELCO has completed the construction of a 3 MW wind farm near Devil’s Point, connected to the Port Vila grid, with further monitoring and measurement activities being conducted for a second wind farm, also near Port Vila.Biomass/biofuelThe potential for significant wood-based power generation by sawmills, where residues are widely dispersed, is not promising. There is very limited practical potential for biogas (methane from animal wastes) or energy from municipal wastes at landfills. There is considerable experience at using coconut oil as biofuel, replacing diesel fuel for electricity and transport. In recent years before 2004, copra output was in principle sufficient to replace all diesel fuel imports. Currently, the Port Vila diesel generators are run on a 20% blend of coconut oil with diesel, and coconut oil is being used as a diesel replacement in small power grids, for example that of Port Orly. Discussions for the potential construction of a copra oil biodiesel refinery have been had, but financing for the project has been difficult to source.