In 2009, the Swedish Parliament passed a comprehensive energy and climate change policy and plan. Their stated goal is to be free of fossil fuels by mid-century. Their stated reasons for pursuing this goal include: to contribute to slowing down climate change; to provide sustainable, stable, and affordable energy sources for Sweden; and to improve the long-term economic outlook for Sweden.Sweden’s plan recognizes that renewable energy and economic development are intertwined: “the world faces several interdependent challenges. The climate crisis has coincided with an economic downturn, and the way out of both these crises is an economy which accommodates the environment – an eco-efficient economy.” Like Denmark, there is a strong emphasis on energy independence (with renewable energy) not only being healthier but also creating energy jobs within their boundaries.Sweden has a comprehensive energy planning process with national targets for renewable energy and a green certificate system, both of which wind power is a part of. Each municipality is also required to create its own energy plan, which includes strategies for meeting the national targets for renewable energy.Sweden’s national energy plan sets the following goals:The proportion of energy supplied by renewable sources is to be at least 50% of the country’s energy use by 2020;Vehicles in Sweden are to be independent of fossil fuels by 2030 (which includes being fuelled by wind power); andThere will be no net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by 2050.In 2009, Sweden approved a plan for wind power of 30 TWh by 2020, of which 20 TWh is to be produced onshore and 10 TWh offshore. Currently, 71 out of 1,655 wind turbines are offshore, and this represents 163 MW.Sweden has a market-based green certificate system that supports producers of renewable electricity, including wind power. Utilities must purchase these certificates in order to meet their required percentage of renewable energy. Market prices are then set by the supply and demand for these certificates.Action plan for renewable energyAs part of the integrated climate and energy policy, Sweden set in motion an action plan for renewable energies. This included a higher ambition for the electricity certificate system with an increase of 25 TWh by 2020 compared to 2002, when the system started. Sweden also put forward a national planning framework for wind power of 30 TWh by 2020 (20 TWh onshore, 10 TWh offshore) to provide orientation to municipal spatial planning proceduresSweden promotes efficient fuel use and the use of renewable energy sources in passenger cars with flexible fuel vehicles and efficient technologies, including electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, and the use of biogas, ethanol, hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and biodiesel through a number of tax incentives and blending. In Sweden, the fulfilment of the sustainable requirements, as authorised by the Swedish Energy Agency, is a condition for obtaining tax exemptions. Under the EU Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC, only biofuels that fulfil the sustainability criteria may be taken into account for the fulfilment of targets or be entitled to state aid.Action plan for energy efficiencyUnder the integrated climate and energy policy bill, Sweden adopted comprehensive five-year energy efficiency programme for 2010-2014 with a total of SEK 1350 million (EUR156.23 million) or SEK 270 million (EUR 31.25 million) per year. The activities under this programmer aim to strengthen the regional and local climate and energy initiatives, to support green procurement by the public sector to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to manage and audit their energy consumption, and to procure energy-efficient technology. In addition, Sweden continues the Programme for Energy Efficiency in Energy-Intensive Industry (PFE). Overall funding from the State budget in the area of energy efficiency is around SEK 530 million (EUR 61.44 million) per year.