SolarThe solar energy that hits the earth every year is estimated to be more than 10,000 times the energy consumption. In Norway this value is about 1,500 times the energy consumption. Typical solar irradiance in Norway is 700 – 900 kWh/m²/year.Wind EnergyWhile Norway´s offshore wind potential is only surpassed by Portugal and the country enjoys the best onshore potential in Europe the market is developing only slowly after the introduction of the green certificates in 2012. Towards, 2025, public research have estimated a potential wind development of 5.8 GW (17,4 TWh) to 7.1 GW (21,5 TWh). Grid capacity is a limiting factor.At the end of 2011, Norway had installed 512 MW of wind turbines at 18 sites producing ca. 1 GWh and 0, 7 % of the country’s total generation. The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy is together with NVE currently researching the consequences of building offshore wind. The 15 potential Norwegian offshore wind fields could produce 18 to 44 TWh yearly.BiomassForest biomass is the major source of bioenergy in Norway, followed by waste used in district heating. Forests cover 12 million ha, which is 37% of the land area, with a growing stock of 910 million m3. From and annual growth of about 25 million m3, less than half (44%) is harvested annually. The standing stock and annual increment have been increasing the last 70 years. The most important biomass resources in Norway are firewood, wood chips, logging residues, thinning residues and stumps from clear cuttings. Forest biomass has an estimated sustainable potential for bioenergy production between 86 and 108 PJ. The sustainable potential of biomass for energy production is estimated between 117 and 140 PJ.BiogasProduction of liquid biofuel based on domestic raw materials from agricultural or forestry areas in Norway is still very modest. However, this could change over time. Norway is in a good position for producing large amounts of biodiesel from animal and ﬁsh residues. The maximum potential of 162 kt biodiesel from used animal fat in Norway is 35 kg per inhabitant.HydroHydroelectricity, due to elevated high lakes and heavy rain and snowfall, has been the dominant source of electricity production ever since the Norwegians started to produce electricity. Today hydroelectric production accounts for 99% of total electricity production, and Norway has traditionally been a net exporter of electricity. The most prominent example is the attempt by civil protesters to block the construction of a hydropower dam in the Altavassdraget drainage basin in the northernmost part of the country in the 1970s. Despite such protests, though, exploitation of hydrological resources continued throughout the 1980s and the 1990s, which contributed to the maintenance of a stable electricity balance and a general situation of electricity surplus.