National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)
The NREAP for the Netherlands was submitted in July 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC is 14% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year is 14.5%. In October 2012 a new coalition agreement was presented, in which the ambition for the Netherlands was increased to 16% (overall) renewable energy by the year 2020. According to the projection, the most important contribution in the year 2020 is expected from wind power (32.4 TWh or 2787 ktoe, 38% of all renewable energy). The second important contribution is expected from biomass (renewable heating and cooling) (1520 ktoe, 21% of all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from biomass (renewable electricity) (16.6 TWh or 1431 ktoe, 19% of all renewable energy). Wind power contributes with 11.2 GW (32.4 TWh) in the year 2020 (onshore wind 6.0 GW and 13.4 TWh, offshore wind 5.2 GW and 19.0 TWh). For photovoltaic power the 2020 contribution is projected to be 0.7 GW (0.6 TWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 23 ktoe. The two most important biofuels are projected to contribute 552 ktoe (biodiesel) and 282 ktoe (bioethanol / bio-ETBE) by 2020. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts to 12.0 TWh (1030 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 4.7 TWh (401 ktoe). The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to 650 ktoe for solid biomass and 288 ktoe for biogas. A contribution of 582 ktoe is expected from bio-methane for grid feed-in by the year 2020.
National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP)
The Netherlands has adopted a National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008-2016 (NEEAP), which sets an energy savings target of 51.2 TWh (or 4.4 Mtoe) by 2016 to be achieved in buildings, transport and small industries (excluding sectors under ETS). The second NEEAP, submitted in mid-2011, stated that the country can expect to exceed this target by 45%.Clean and Efficient ProgramThe Clean and Efficient Program, launched in 2007, aims to improve energy efficiency by 2% / year over the period 2011-2020 and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020 compared with 1990. The program uses different measures to achieve its objectives, including energy efficiency standards.
SDE+ premium feed-in scheme
In the Netherlands, the main support instrument for renewable energy is the SDE+ premium feed-in scheme. This support scheme promotes renewable energy sources used for electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes. It encompasses a system of phased admission with escalating base tariffs, which favours low cost RES options. Besides the premium scheme, investments in renewable energy technologies are supported via loans and various tax benefits. Moreover, net-metering applies to small installations. Access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid shall be granted according to the principle of non-discrimination. Grid operators are generally obliged to develop the grid to provide sufficient capacity for the access and transmission of electricity. Heat from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (bonuses on top of the wholesale price) as well as tax benefits.The Netherlands has adopted an obligation scheme which should result in a 10% RES share of energy consumption in the transport sector. Tax credits exist for biofuel and hydrogen related RES-T investments. Regarding policies, the Dutch Energy Agency facilitates market parties and specific organisations to establish training and certification facilities for RES installers and installations. Innovation in energy is supported through innovation contracts between private companies, universities, R&D institutes. In the framework of the Energieinvesteringsaftrek, tax credits are available for RES-H infrastructure.
A biofuel obligation has been in place over the past few years, but the last year for which a mandatory biofuel quota is mentioned is 2010. Quotas for 2011-2014 are not mentioned in the NREAP, but are envisaged to increase slightly; this is yet to be decided by parliament.For companies investing in renewable energy source (RES) projects, a tax relief (EIA) exists, which contributes substantially to the project’s economic viability. Annual budgets are limited and regularly exhausted for some technologies and underexploited for others.
The Green Deal
The Green Deal was presented on 3 October 2011. It constitutes an arrangement between the Dutch Government and society, namely citizens, enterprises, authorities and other organisations, and is designed to help them implement plans for achieving sustainability. The Green Deal aims to eliminate obstacles, for example statutory and regulatory problems, ensure effective and objective information provision and bring about effective cooperation. In practice, simple solutions such as better cooperation between government and local enterprises often turn out to promote the implementation of new sustainable projects. The Green Deal covers specific projects in such areas as energy saving, sustainable energy, sustainable mobility and sustainable use of raw materials and water. The Dutch Government is set to conclude further Green Deals with society in the coming years. Citizens, enterprises, organisations and other authorities are asked to come up with new proposals by February 2012, with the themes covered being energy, raw materials, mobility and water.