SolarItaly ranked among the world’s largest producers of electricity from solar power with an installed photovoltaic nameplate capacity of 12,773 MW at the end of 2011 and 330,196 plants in operation as of the end of 2011.The total energy produced by solar power in 2011 was 10,730 GWh, about 3.2% of the total electricity demand of 332.3 TWh.The installed photovoltaic capacity, compared to the previous year, has tripled in 2010 and almost quadrupled in 2011.As of December 2012, the installed capacity is approaching 17 GW, with a production so important that several gas turbine power plants currently operate at half the their potential during the day. The sector provides employment to about 100,000 people, especially in design and installation.Wind EnergyThe best wind resources in Italy are located in the south, particularly the Apennine Mountains and on the coast, as well as in the major islands. Also the relatively large off-shore potential is located in the southern coastal areas and islands. In perspective, this implies that a large share of non-programmable electricity would be fed into the grid in such areas. Unfortunately, the power grid in these areas is weak for historical reasons, since these areas are less densely populated and larger consumption centres are located in the North.BiomassThe maximum exploitation possible from current resources of biomasses, made up mainly of agricultural and forest residues, firewood, livestock manure and the biodegradable portion of solid urban waste, potentially equals 20-25 Mtep/year. Additional quantities of raw material can be produced by renovating the non-food agricultural sector and the forest sector, together with the recovery of abandoned agro-wood territories, which extend for at least 2 million hectares.HydroWater energy is by far the major national energy source in Italy and the principal indigenous resource alternative to fossil fuel sources. There are over 2000 hydroelectric power plants mostly in the Alpine region, of which only 300 have a production capacity of more than 10 MW. 80% of electricity is produced in large plants. In recent years, some small and medium plants under 10 MW have been added and they contribute 20% to the total production. The hydroelectric power plants in 2007 made up approximately 72% of the electricity production from renewable sources. However, its potential has been almost completely exploited.GeothermalThe Italian geothermal potential to economically profitable depths is considerable, with high temperature resources (>150oC) concentrated in the foothills of the Apennines in Tuscany-Latium-Campania and on some volcanic islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea. It has resources of medium and low temperature (< 150oC) on large areas of the national territory. The high-temperature resources lend themselves to the production of electricity and direct uses, while the medium and low temperature resources can be utilized mostly for the production of heat.