SolarGermany’s average solar irradiation is somewhere between 975 and 1,200 kWh/m², which is less than many southern European countries or North Africa (cf. 2,200 kWh/m²). WindAn UBA study concludes that 49,361 km², or 13.8% of the country’s territory, are in principle suitable for wind energy use. This area potential would allow the installation of turbines with a total capacity of 1,188 GW and an annual power output of around 2,898 TWh. As expected, the biggest potential is in the northern German federal states, although a major potential was also calculated for the central and southern parts of Germany. In contrast, significant differences were noted in the median full load hours of the reference turbines as placed, with a national average amounting to 2,440 full load hours. Whilst with 2,621 and 2,540 full load hours respectively, the average capacity of wind energy plants in northern and central Germany is above average, only 2,108 full load hours are achieved in the south. However, this is still considerably higher than the median capacity utilisation of 1,700 full load hours over the past five years in Germany.Biomass The Federal Environment Ministry believes biomass to be the “most important and multifunctional source of energy for Germany.” Regarding the land availability there are about 17 million hectare of agricultural spaces (approximately 12 million hectare of agricultural crop land and approximately 5 million hectare of grassland). There is also another 11 million hectare of woodland area.By far the most important natural resource is wood. One third of Germany’s landscape is forest. About one quarter of all wood lumbered is used for energy generation. The other three quarters are utilized to create building and commercial materials. Coming along are recycled material, which are also used for energy generation. The Federal Ministry for Forest Affairs (Johann Heinrich von Thünen Institute) believes that there also is extra potential and reserves (13-35 million m³/ year) for sustainable forest harvesting.BiogasThe potential for agricultural biogas production was estimated on 19.7 – 20.6 bn m3, from the landfill biogas – 2.2 – 2.3 bn m3, and from wastewater treatment plants – 1.1bn m3.The agricultural biogas production is regarded as having the largest development potential: out of a total technical potential of 417 PJ from sewage gas, landfill gas and agricultural biogas, the latter could provide 77-85%, according to Poeschl et al. In the same report it is estimated that only 10% of the total technical potential for biogas production is currently utilised. HydroIn Germany, 4,350 MW have so far been installed from hydro power - more than twice the amount (10,040 MW) would be possible. If one considers the possible volume of electricity that could be produced by hydro power stations in Germany, the gap would even grow wider: the presently installed hydro power stations generate about 16,300 GWh of electricity per year. Yet 37,650 GWh would actually be possible. At present, Germany also has some 30 power stations with a pump capacity of 7 GW; the storage output amounts to approximately 7 GW. Pumped storage power plants can be controlled very flexibly; they are able to react to grid fluctuations within seconds.