HydropowerAlbania is known for its enormous hydropower potential. So far, the country has exploited only 35 percent of the total potential. The average output from hydropower is 4,169 GWh. Total hydropower reserves are estimated at around 2,000 MW. Potential annual generation may reach up to 10 TWh. New plants in the southern part of Albania (Vjosa and Devoll) have been successful in exploiting nearby rivers. With an average annual rainfall of 1,500 mm, and an average available head of 600 m, the potential for further large hydropower development is substantial.Apart from the large and medium sized HPPs, there are 83 small hydropower plants (SHPPs) in Albania (owned by KESH) ranging from 0.05 to 1.2 MW. Their utilisation scheme is often incorporated for electricity generation and irrigation. Most of them are connected to the national grid. In reality, these SHPPs are generally in poor working conditions or inoperative because of outdated technology, a lack of spare parts and poor maintenance.Solar energyAs regards the potential, the climate of Albania is typically Mediterranean, with hot and dry summers. Albania has good solar potential in the western portion of the country, with a Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) value of 7.22 kWh/m2/day and a Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI) value of 5.4 kWh/m2/day.The annual radiation varies, between 3.2 kWh/m²/day in the north-eastern part of Albania, and 6 kWh/m²/day in Fier, with a country average of 4 kWh/m²/day, indicating a promising country-wide potential. The Ministry of Energy plans to install solar panels that will provide about 2,6 PJ of energy by 2015. Domestic solar panels are available on the market, and the UNDP is supporting a national program to install 50,000 m2 of new solar panelling from 2007 to 2012, through a system of grants and fiscal incentives. Solar thermal also holds a good potential in the country, particularly for providing hot water in the services sector.Geothermal powerThere are many thermal springs and wells in Albania, which represent a real potential for geothermal energy. The most important resources explored until now are located in the northern part of the Kruja geothermal area, from Lixha Elbasan in the south to Ishmi north of Tirana. The values of the specific reserves vary between 38.5 and 39.6 GJ/m². The southern part of the Kruja area has resources of 20.63 GJ/m². In the Ardenica geothermal area, the specific reserves amount to 0.39 GJ/m². Geothermal resources in the Peshkopia area, situated in the north-eastern region of the country, have been estimated to be similar to those of the northern half of the Kruja geothermal area.Biomass energyBiomass energy could be important in the future, consisting of the following four main resources:- Urban wastes potential of the main Albanian cities (approx. 406 ktoe of potential, estimated for 2010),- Energy potential of agricultural residues (approx. 43,004 GJ, assessed in 1995),- Forestry biomass resources (approx. 460 million GJ, assessed in 1995),- Energy potential of animal residues (approx. 12,740 GJ, assessed in 1995, with a trend increase in the future).Wind energyStudies show that the construction of 20 windmills nearby to 20 pumping stations along the Adriatic coast is feasible. Expected capacity of this implementation is 400 GWh/year of electricity by year 2020, providing roughly 4% of annual electricity demand. Average windspeeds at 10m are 4-6 m/s throughout the country, with an average annual energy density of 150 W/m2. Major plans are in place to develop wind energy in Albania, with a proposed capacity of 1300 MW to be developed in the coming years, including the capacity to export surplus energy from the new wind capacity to Italy via undersea transmission lines.