Solar energyWith an average solar insolation throughout the year of 6 kWh/m2/day, East Timor is ideally suited to solar PV applications. Installation of between 10,000 and 50,000 PV systems is likely to be required for households that will not be connected to the national distribution network or microgrids within the next 15 years. A significant number of small solar power systems were distributed as part of an Indonesian programme during the 1990s, and since 2002, with financial and technical support from various Ministries of Timor Leste, and from numerous NGOs and charities, the number of power systems has increased. Many of those systems show functional failures, with no schemes in place that provide financial and technical capacities for long-term maintenance and spare parts. The possibility of 50W solar home system dissemination has also been proposed, via the UNDP, although no progress has been made in this area currently.Wind energyWind power is a viable option for East Timor, with high coastal wind speeds indicating a good potential for power generation from wind energy. In 2007, a volunteer group from the Australian NGO ATA (Alternative Energy Association) installed two wind power generation systems in the country, for rural electrification purposes. A wind resource map was also produced for the country in 2008 by Portuguese firm MEGAJOULE.HydropowerA recent estimate indicates that there is a significant potential for the installation of medium-sized hydropower in the capacity range of 75 to 95 MW (based on feasibility study carried out in six sites by the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation). Tmor-Leste started a programme to install hydro power plants with the construction of the Loihuno Power Plant, which was inaugurated in June 2009. This power plant produces 12 kilowatts per day, supplying 140 families. Another hydro power plant is under construction in Ainaro with a capacity of 28 kilowatts per day, sufficient to supply 230 families.The UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) lacks the further analysis in terms of the suitability and feasibility of small, mini, and micro-hydro power to produce electricity, given the topographic features of the country, to invest in any new hydropower infrastructure.Biomass energyThe majority of rural energy consumption in East Timor is still provided by traditional biomass fuels, leading to considerable deforestation. However, plans are in place to utilise biomass, along with other renewable energy sources, in the development of renewable power generation capacity in the country. 78 MW of biomass, biogas and waste-to-energy projects are being planned under the government's new energy strategy.Biogas energyA feasibility study by the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and Hivos concludes that biogas would be one of the best solutions for cooking and lighting to those households who have sufficient cattle dung available in the yard. While about 12,000 biogas plants are technically feasible based on the sufficiency of manure and availability of water, collection of dung from these animals are rather difficult due to the free grazing practices and the difficulty of accessing water in many places. In addition, as rural households are not in a position to invest on biogas, there is a need to establish micro credit system in place. Geothermal energySignificant geothermal potential has been identified in East Timor, comparable to that of Australia or the United States at the same depth, 10km. The possibility of centralised geothermal power generation has been investigated, although no progress has currently been made in the field.