Solar energyThe average solar insulation in Palestine is 5.4 kWh/m2/day, indicating a high potential. According to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, parts of the West Bank, in the Jordan Valley, receive high radiation levels of 5.40-5.98 kWh per day annually. Total annual sunshine is approximately 3,000h. These are excellent conditions for harnessing solar energy for both large-scale and stand-alone applications. The potential of solar sources is estimated to account for 13% of electricity demand. In addition, domestic solar water heating (SWH) is widely used in Palestine - it is estimated that at least 70% of houses have such systems. SWH has proved to be feasible compared with other alternatives. For example, the energy cost from solar heater is about $ 0.17/Kwh and is much cheaper than the electricity price from the grid,($0.11/Kwh). A solar thermal plant for warm water supply and central heating came online in December 2009. The Palestinian Authority, however, has yet to take renewable energy into consideration in energy planning.Wind energyTwo companies, Israel Wind Power based in Ramat Gan, near Tel Aviv and Brothers Engineering Group from Bethlehem in the West Bank, have announced their intention to cooperate in the building and selling of wind turbines in the West Bank region and beyond. Average wind speeds in the country vary from 3-4 m/s in coastal regions, to 6-10 m/s in more elevated areas of the country, indicating a moderate potential for wind power. Using a 100-m wind turbine with blade length of 52 m and power coefficient of 0.4, the annual power that can be generated is 3.3 and 3.8 GWh for the northern and southern West Bank, respectively. Using a wind farm of 50 turbines, each would generate 355 GWh/year, which could account for 6.6% of the electricity need in the Palestinian Territories. The high density of buildings and the scarcity of open and empty lands in the Gaza Strip obviate the possibility of building wind farms there. However, offshore wind farms could be installed in the Mediterranean Sea, were it not for present political obstacles. Today, the only large-scale wind turbine in the Palestinian Territories is at the Al-Ahli Hospital in Hebron. This turbine provides 40% of the hospital’s energy needs. The low speed winds in the Palestinian Territories may encourage using wind energy in stand-alone systems to provide small electricity loads.Geothermal energyMiddle East and North Africa Geothermal (MENA, www.menageothermal.com) announced in June 2010 the opening of the country's first geothermal power plant in Ramallah, with a 23kW cooling load and a 21kW heating load.Biomass energyPalestine is an agricultural country, with many different types of plant products that can be used as energy sources. The main source is a rejected residue of olive oil pressers called Jefit. Usually, Jefit is used in households for heating in the winter. Annual production of Jefit had been not assessed yet but there are plans to do so in cooperation between the Ministry of Agriculture and the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. From agricultural residues, 22,800 tons of diesels can be generated, which could account for nearly 5% of the national diesel consumption.BiogassAssuming 50% collection, the availability of fresh manure of medium-size cattle in the Palestinian Territories amounts to approximately 165,000 kg per day. If 20 kg of wet mass of manure produces 1 m3 of gas at 25 ◦C, then the total biogas production for the Palestinian Territories’ amount of cattle would be 8250 m3 per day. Similarly, assuming 50% collection, the availability of fresh manure of goats and sheep amounts to 50,000 kg per day. Based on the literature, 6 kg of wet mass produces 0.5 m3 gas per day at 25 ◦C, and produces a total of 4166 m3 of gas per day. Combined with the cattle’s biogas production, the Palestinian Territories could produce 12,416 m3 of biogas per day or approximately 4.5 million m3 per year. The produced biogas could account for 10–20% of cooking energy needs for the rural population.HydropowerHydro-electric potential in the country is limited, with no major resource survey as yet conducted.