Pakistan's current electricity generation mix has a growing and ultimately unsustainable reliance on imported gas and fuel oil. Imported energy is in the range of 30% of the total energy mix and has increased each year for the past 5 years. Pakistan has a huge RE potential (50,000MW from hydropower, 40,000 MW from wind energy). Solar energy too offers opportunities .Solar Energy Pakistan lies in a region of high solar irradiance; as such, it is ideally suited for solar energy projects. Pakistan receives about 15.5x1014 kWh of solar irradiance each year, with most regions receiving approximately 8 to 10 sunlight hours per day. The potential installed capacity of solar photovoltaic power is estimated to be 1,600 GW per year, providing approximately 3.5 PWh of electricity (approximately 41 times current power generation in the country). Current utilisation is still at a developmental stage, with several pilot projects being implemented.Wind Energy Wind energy also has strong technical potential in Pakistan, particularly in the southern regions of Sindh and Balochistan. Pakistan has approximately 1,000 km of coastline with steady average wind speeds ranging between 5 and 7 m/s. The projected installed capacity for wind energy is estimated at 122.6 GW per year, providing approximately 212 TWh of electricity (approximately 2.5 times the current power generation level). The Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) has awarded 19 contracts to IPPs for construction of wind power plants, all with capacities exceeding 50 MW.Biomass Energy Biomass availability in Pakistan is also widespread. Approximately 50,000 tonnes of solid waste, 225,000 tonnes of crop residue and over 1 million tonnes of animal manure are produced daily. It is estimated that potential production of biogas from livestock residues is 8.8 to 17.2 billion meters3 of gas per year (equivalent to 55 to 106 TWh of energy). Large sugar industry in Pakistan also generates electricity from biomass energy for utilization in sugar mills. Annual electricity production from bagasse is estimated at 5,700 GWh – about 6% of Pakistan’s current power generation level . In the present electricity crisis recently government allowed sugar mills to supply their surplus power up to a limit of 700 MW to the national grid. It is estimated that sugarcane bagasse can potentially be used to generate 2000 MW of electric power. However presently it is difficult to obtain more electricity from sugar mills due to grid limitations because most of the sugar mills are located in remote rural areas which are not even connected to the national grid. Integration of electricity generated from biomass energy to the national grid can ease the electricity shortage in the country.Hydropower Presently, large hydro power dams are the only major renewable energy sources in Pakistan for electricity generation. In some cases construction of large hydro dams results in major relocation of people and changes in land use for the areas in which the dams are built. These projects have become controversial in Pakistan in recent years due to significant impact on rivers, ecosystems, and surrounding communities. . Currently, Pakistan has installed hydropower capacity of approximately 6.6 GW. This is 16% of total hydropower potential, which is estimated to be roughly 41.5 GW . Biogas A total biogas generation potential of 14.25 million m3/day is available. The Pakistan Council of Renewable Energy Technologies is designing, developing and disseminating biogas plants. During the last 3 years, more than 1600 plants, mostly of 5 m3/day capacity, have been installed by the PCRET. NGOs and private sector companies have performed similar numbers of installations. This means that a total of 0.016 million m3/day of biogas capacity was utilised during the last 3 years, with an annual exploitation factor of 0.374 x 10-3. The working status of biogas plants installed before the last 3 years is uncertain, as there are no repair and maintenance services.Geothermal EnergyPakistan has considerable potential for geothermal energy (80,000 MW) as there are numerous fumaroles and hot springs. However, the extent of the commercial potential is not known, and further studies are needed.