This report is the first of a series to monitor progress towards the three objectives of the Sustainable Energy for All initiative. It puts numbers to each objective, identifies what needs to change and outlines how progress can be made.
Carbon dioxide emissions from anthropic activities have accumulated in the atmosphere in excess of 800 Gigatons since preindustrial times, and are continuously increasing. Among other strategies, CO2 capture and storage is one option to mitigate the emissions from large point sources. In addition, carbon dioxide extraction from ambient air is assessed to reduce the atmospheric concentration of CO2. Both direct and indirect (through photosynthesis) pathways are possible.
This paper presents the analysis of the market potential of innovative technologies for the e-waste recycling sector in selected developing countries. Criteria to compare and select innovative technologies are grouped along the elements of sustainability. The analysis rated a few technologies to have an innovation potential for developing countries. Based on a selection of developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America, the study suggests that all countries would have a potential for the adaptation of the mentioned pre-processing technologies.
Reform of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is a key issue in advancing the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. The CDM was created with the mutual objectives of providing cost-effective abatement opportunities for industrialized countries and to advance sustainable development in developing countries. Current literature, however, suggests that the CDM is failing to deliver on its promise of a "development dividend". This article compares and contrasts different host-country approval processes and investigates how this is reflected in CDM project quality.
This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector serves two objectives: (1) to provide national policymakers and others in the agriculture sector with an overview of national mitigation planning processes and aid them in identifying the relevance of these processes for promoting agricultural development; (2) to provide policymakers and advisors involved in low-emission development planning processes with an overview of mitigation planning in the agriculture sector and in particular to highlight the relevance of agriculture to national mitigation pla
The handbook contains 31 articles by individual authors covering the following issues: policies and legislation on F-gases and related issues (Part 1), safety concerns and means to overcome (Part 2), a technical assessment of natural refrigerants in different applications (air conditioning, commercial and industrial refrigeration and heat pumps) (Part 3) and case studies by manufacturers and end-users providing insights into market developments and examples of successful conversions to natural refrigerants (Part 4).
The goal of this report is to provide an understanding of global non-ferrous metal scrap flows in the context of non-ferrous industry developments over the 2000 to 2011 period. The focus of this study is on copper and aluminium as the two largest non-ferrous metals in terms of both material tonnages and market value. The report consists of four chapters. The first chapter, presented here, provides a brief backdrop to the analysis on non-ferrous scrap flows. It outlines growth in metal demand and the underlying reasons for this growth.
This paper introduces the Renewable Power Fraction and Renewable Energy Fraction as self-defining metrics to quantify and visualise the performance of renewable generators versus the total load, and show how corresponding Fossil or Demand Side Management Power and Energy Fractions can similarly be defined.
Smallholder farmers and lenders with smallholder lending portfolios ( which according to CGAP currently account for about USD 50 billion globally) are highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. mfarmPay, a novel parametric lending solution driving financing to African farmers, offers innovative data-driven solution to reducing climate risk in lending portfolios and incentivising the adoption of climate-smart farming approaches by smallholder food producers.
Renewable energy technologies can help countries meet their policy goals for secure, reliable and affordable energy to expand electricity access and promote development. This paper on hydropower is part of a series on the cost and performance of renewable energy technologies produced by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The goal of these papers is to assist government decision-making and ensure that governments have access to up-to-date and reliable information on the costs and performance of renewable energy technologies.