Solar EnergyThere is a strong potential for solar energy, with an average daily insolation of 4-6.5 kWh/m2.The abundant sunshine available in Bangladesh makes it a good place to promote solar energy. A solar powered electricity generating system called solar home system (SHS) has been very popular since the solar power development project was initiated in rural Bangladesh in 2003 by IDCOL (Infrastructure Development Company Limited), an organisation created by the Bangladesh government. IDCOL implements its SHS installation programme in villages through several non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working as partners. By September 2005, a total of 50,000 SHS were installed in rural households. This number increased to about 400,000 by December 2008 and to about 801,358 by January 2011, generating about 36.5 MW of electricity in total . The very rapid growth of SHS in rural households in Bangladesh puts it on the map of one of the faster growing solar energy programmes. IDCOL now plans to increase the total number of households with SHS in the country to one million by 2012. There is no doubt that solar powered electricity through SHS is benefiting millions in the rural households in Bangladesh, but in the context of total national output it will be quite some time before solar energy becomes a significant constituent of the energy mix of the country . The Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) has also implemented an excellent Solar PV electrification project in the Chittagong hill tracts region. Solar PV electrification has emerged as the most appropriate technological option for electrifying these areas . Wind Energy Wind energy has also made some inroads, but its potential is mainly limited to coastal areas, and offshore islands with strong wind regimes. These coastal settings afford good opportunities for wind-powered pumping and electricity generation. Presently there are 2 MW of installed wind turbine capacity at Feni and Kutubdia.Biomass Biomass has been used traditionally as a domestic fuel in rural Bangladesh for ages, keeping the rural energy technology base inefficient and primitive. There has been increasing interest in improving the energy efficiency of biomass (cow dung, agricultural waste, etc.) by converting it to biogas, thus upgrading the rural energy consumption patterns. Biogas (methane), similar in nature and property to natural gas, is used in rural households for cooking, lighting and other purposes. About 10,000 biogas plants were installed in rural households up to December 2009. The ongoing programme of promoting biogas technology in rural Bangladesh has the people’s support and is destined to grow further. Biomass is not generally considered as commercial energy and therefore the drive to increase the energy efficiency of biomass is not always a priority with government agencies. But considering that the vast majority of people in rural Bangladesh depend on biomass, the biomass to biogas conversion technology deserves to be furthered in order to raise the standard of living of rural people.Biogas Biogas mainly from animal and municipal wastes may be one of the promising renewable energy resources for Bangladesh. Presently there are tens of thousands of household- and village-level biogas plants throughout the country. There is the potential to harness basic biogas technology for cooking and rural and peri-urban electrification, to provide electricity during periods of power shortfalls.Hydropower Micro-hydro and mini-hydro have limited potential in Bangladesh, with the exception of the Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill tracts. Hydropower assessments have identified some possible sites from 10 kW to 5 MW, but no appreciable capacity has yet been installed. There is currently one operating hydropower plant at Kaptai, established in the 1960s, with an installed capacity of 230 MW.Other renewable energy sources include biofuels, gasohol, geothermal, river current, wave and tidal energy. Potentialities of these sources are yet to be explored.