Solar energyUganda has an average of 5-6 kWh/m2/day of solar insolation, with an average of 8 sunshine hours per day, yearly, indicating an excellent potential for solar energy use. Solar energy is currently used primarily for off-grid electrification for rural communities, as well as for solar cooking, and providing water heating and power to public buildings, for example hospitals. An estimated 200 MW of potential electrical capacity are available in Uganda, and currently, a 50MW solar thermal plant, at Namugoga in Wakiso District outside of Kampala, is being investigated by a private firm, Solar Energy for Africa. Solar cooking also holds a significant potential in the country, with a large number of the population living in well-insolated areas, without access to energy services.Wind energyWind speeds are estimated to average 3-3.5 m/s, indicating a moderate potential for wind power. Studies have concluded that whilst the wind resource is insufficient for large-scale power generation, possible applications for the technology exist, for example, water pumping and small-scale power generation in mountainous areas. Small industries in rural areas, where targets for a mill range from 2.5kV to 10kV, could benefit from the wind resource. Currently, no large-scale developments are being made in the wind power sector of the country.Biomass energyBioenergy, apart from hydropower, is considered to be the second significant pillar to secure energy supply, particularly in rural areas. The transition from traditional biomass, which is often perceived as inefficient, to modern biomass and biofuel production and consumption is a main focal area of the government. Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Limited and Kinyara Sugar Limited are both licensed to generate electricity for sale to the national grid from bagasse, providing 12 MW and 5 MW respectively in 2010. Biomass cogeneration from agricultural wastes is seen to hold particular promise as a technology for the country, and a significant peat resource also exists, of which approximately 25 million tonnes is feasibly available for power generation, equivalent to 800 MW of potential capacity for 50 years. A limited program of biogas digester distribution was undertaken in the 1990s, and 50 digesters were installed in five districts in the country by 2004.Geothermal energy Uganda has an estimated geothermal resource potential of 450 MW, mainly located in the Western Rift valley part of the country (Katwe Kikorongo, Buranga and Kibiro). Feasibility studies are recommended to improve confidence in the resource and promote development.Hydropower Despite Uganda’s vast hydropower potential, estimated at 3000 MW, less than 10% is currently exploited. Bujagali, the third large hydropower plant on the Nile River is currently under construction, with an anticipated capacity of 250MW. Numerous other hydropower ventures are being investigated by both Ugandan and Japanese contractors, as well as the government. A number of small hydropower plants, with total installed capacity of slightly over 15MW, are in operation in various parts of the country, with a further 60 MW of projects in the development stage. An estimated 1,300 MW of large hydropower and 51.7 MW of small-hydro capacity are yet to be developed in Uganda.