Solar energyThe available solar radiation is between 4.4 and 4.5 kWh/m²/day. Up to now, there have already been some experiences with thermal solar energy and photovoltaic (PV) energy. This includes solar water heating, solar cooking and PV systems for telecommunication services, water pumping, railway stations and some other small scale applications. In order to improve the access to modern energy services in rural areas of Togo, there is still a significant need to promote the utilisation of solar energy. Some non-profit organisations are active in the solar energy field in Togo, promoting the indigenous production of photovoltaic cells; however, the projects are currently operating on a limited scale. Wind energyTogo, just like its neighbour Ghana, has considerable wind potential, which is so far not being exploited. Numerous sites have been identified in the country as having average wind speeds in excess of 5 m/s, indicating a good potential for the exploitation of wind energy in the country, particularly in coastal areas. Wind utilisation in the country so far is limited to use as an alternative, decentralised energy source for rural communities. Biomass energyThe biomass potential of Togo is estimated at 2.6 million toe, and mainly consists of wood, charcoal, and vegetable waste. With regard to the production and utilisation of biogas, there are significant resources available, mainly from agricultural waste (cotton, maize stem etc.) and livestock. Due to the lack of technology and capacity, and the proportionally high cost of family-scale biogas installations, there are no existing biogas production sites in Togo up to now, although the country offers a significant resource for the development of this technology. Geothermal energyCurrently, there is no utilisation of geothermal energy in Togo, nor has any resource assessment into the potential for power generation been conducted. HydropowerTogo has more than 50 rivers and waterfalls that offer abundant potential for mini- and micro-hydropower for the production of electricity. About 40 sites, located on the rivers of Mono and Oti, offer a potential overall production capacity of 224 MW. Up to now however, there are very few hydropower installations available for electricity generation.