Solar EnergySwaziland's solar regime is not well documented and it is necessary to collect sufficient and reliable data in order to map out the resource. However, indications from SADC maps, satellite images, and hourly sunshine data indicate that the annual averages could lie between 4 to 6 kWh/m2/day. A program to install solar water heaters in public institutions as an energy efficiency measure is also underway.HydropowerIt is estimated that Swaziland has a gross theoretical hydropower potential of approximately 3800 GWh/year, with a potential installed capacity of 200 MW. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy established a database on the potential of developing mini-micro hydropower electricity schemes. The target was to pin point sites around the country where appropriate river basins exist, which could be used to generate electricity and help quantify the cost of establishing new electricity schemes. A report was produced from the study and 35 sites were identified. The capacity of the schemes identified ranged between 0.032MW to 1.525MW.Biomass EnergyTotal forestry cover in the country is estimated at 625,400 hectares, with 463,000 hectares of this being indigenous forest. The harvesting of indigenous wood fuels is not managed. Biofuels are also being considered for the country, with a proposed 10% mix of anhydrous ethanol in transport fuel. The Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation is to produce the ethanol. A public awareness campaign on the benefits of biofuels is also included in the considerations. In 2007, approximately 1.8 million tonnes of bagasse were produced from the country’s sugar industry, 80% of which was used for industrial process, heating and the remainder for electricity generation.Wind EnergyWind speed measurements are continuing in the country, with preliminary results indicating a mean average wind speed of 4 m/s across the country, suggesting a moderate potential for wind energy use. Wind pumps have previously been used and are deemed to hold the greatest potential. Micro wind turbines of less than 100 kW also hold potential. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy is working in close collaboration with the National Meteorological Service, to determine whether there is any realistic potential for effective utilisation of solar and wind energy in the country, including long-term measurements on the Lubombo Plateau and a movable monitoring station for other areas of the country.Geothermal EnergyNo study has yet been conducted into the geothermal potential of Swaziland, although hot springs are known to exist in the country.