SolarThe solar resource is abundant in Ghana. The monthly average solar irradiation is between 4.4 and 5.6 kWh/m2/day, with sunshine duration of between 1,800 and 3,000 hours per annum. However, till recently, little was done to exploit this resource for grid-connected power generation. Solar power has considerable potential to serve households in un-electrified villages.VRA has just completed a small 2-megawatt-peak (MWp) solar photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected plant as a pilot project in Navrongo in the Northern Electricity Distribution Company (NEDCo) areas of operation, which should be commissioned later this year. Four sites in the environs of Kaleo (near Wa), Lawra, Jirapa, and Navrongo have been identified and acquired for a total of 10-MWp PV plants. VRA is seeking concessionary funding to develop the remaining 8 MWp.Wind EnergyGhana’s best wind resources are found primarily along narrow stretches of its eastern coastline. Along the coastline, the speeds (mostly 6–7 meters per second [m/s] at 50 m) are classified as “marginal” for wind generation. Nevertheless, grid-connected wind power is likely to be cheaper than grid-connected solar power. Clearly, it will be several years before the full extent to which Ghana’s wind resource is technically and financially viable for development on a large scale becomes clear. Yet, it is already evident that wind power is not likely to prove to be a substantial contributor to the power supply in the next decade.Biomass & biogasBiomass is Ghana‘s dominant energy resource in terms of its endowment and consumption. Approximately, about 20.8 million hectares of 23.8 million hectare land mass of Ghana is covered with biomass resources. Biomass fuels in Ghana mainly comprise of charcoal, plant residues and wood fuel. Wood fuel is the major form of biomass used as energy source for both domestic and commercial purposes in Ghana; about 90% of rural households depend on wood fuel and other biomass resources for domestic purposes (cooking, and heating, etc).Wood fuel is the dominant and cheapest fuel available on the Ghanaian market; the production, transportation and sale of wood fuels are all undertaken by the private sector. There is no official government pricing regulatory body responsible for setting the prices of wood fuels in Ghana; rather the pricing is dependent on the supply and demand conditions.These resources have not yet been developed for generating electricity in Ghana, and there are no projects in an advanced planning stage. Some developers are undertaking feasibility studies for biomass projects.HydroGhana has significant hydropower potential, and is already tapping this potential with its Akosombo, Kpong and Bui plants, which provide the majority of electricity in the country. Hydropower potential is estimated to be about 2,420 MW, and in addition to the large-scale Bui plant under construction, 21 additional hydro sites have been identified but not yet developed. Ghana is looking to diversify its power resources, as its reliance on hydroelectricity make it particularly vulnerable to drought.