Solar energyIn the Ivory Coast, most schools and health centres in urban areas use electric solar water heaters. However, these are often malfunctioning, and when they are working, consume large amounts of electricity: approximately 2kW to heat 150 litres of water. In rural zones where electricity is not available, firewood is used to heat water. However, the Ivory Coast is well-endowed with solar energy, and using passive solar heating can meet hot water needs while reducing the use of firewood and electricity. Some PV systems have also been installed in the country through private initiatives and NGOs, in healthcare facilities, and some households. The solar potential in the country ranges from 2.0-4.5 kWh/m2/day, with average daily sunshine durations of 6 hours, indicating a moderate potential for the use of the resource.Wind energyThere are no wind measurements available besides those for civil aviation compiled by the Société d’Exploitation et de Développement Aéroportuaire, Aéronautique et Météorologique (SODEXAM). These measurements, taken at 12 m above the ground, generally range from 1–2 m/s. San Pedro on the western shoreline and Korhogo in the North record wind frequencies between 20–35% for wind speeds above 6 m/s. Bouake in the Centre, and Tabou on the western shoreline are swept by winds with frequencies from 20–45% and speeds greater than 4 m/s. There are no other wind power projects known to date, except those in Touba and Korhogo. Biomass energyThe anaerobic generation of biogas was experimented with in several pilot projects, but was not implemented in regular operation up to now. Currently, some private investors are applying for the authorisation to produce electricity from household wastes, especially in Abidjan. The main sources of supply for fuel wood are natural forests, savannah woodlands and tree and bush savannahs, productive farms and tree plantations. In addition, the production of bioethanol has been investigated in the country, using feedstocks such as sugarcane, maize and sweet sorghum. An estimated 120 ktoe/annum is available solely from bagasse in the North of the country. The forest stand is 6.38 million hectares, including 4.2 million hectares of highly degraded forests and two million hectares of protected areas. Resources from agro-industrial residues, crops and plantations are estimated at over 4.3 million toe per year. They represent the most directly exploitable RE potential. Geothermal energyNo study has yet been conducted into the geothermal potential, however, due to prevailing geological conditions in the area, the country is expected to have limited geothermal potential. HydropowerFour large identified hydroelectric sites remain undeveloped, with capacity ranging from 5 to 288 MW. Several other sites have potential for small plants with capacities of 0.5–5.0 MW. The potential identified in a study by Électricité de France in 1980 is a theoretical capacity of 46 TWh/annum, with an economically exploitable potential of approximately 12.4 TWh, i.e. 27 % of the theoretical potential.