The national electrification rate stands at 15%. The government started a major rehabilitation and expansion of the electricity grid in Bioko in 2007, but few areas outside the main towns receive a regular electricity supply. The mainland region is supplied by thermal plants, which are connected to a network that works independently from the one on Bioko Island. Roughly 80 miles of high-tension transmission cable constitute the country's electricity network.
The Hydrocarbons Law No.8/2006 establishes the state ownership of all mineral resources in the country, and the need for ministerial permissions before petroleum operations can occur. The law also details the environmental responsibilities of petroleum companies operating in the country, and a comprehensive framework for natural gas operations.There is no dedicated framework for promoting renewable energy. National energy policy is confined to the Hydrocarbons Law.
Solar energyAverage daily horizontal irradiation is 2.0-2.5 kWh/m2/day, primarily due to the dense biomass coverage in the country. This solar potential is generally unsuitable for large-scale power generation, but could be exploited for thermal water heating, for example.Wind energySites have been identified in the south of the mainland as having average wind speeds of ~6.0 m/s at 80m, indicating a good potential for wind power generation. However, as yet, there are no major wind power projects operational in the country.Biomass energyWith an estimated biomass potential of 400 tonnes/ha or more, Equatorial Guinea has extensive biomass coverage. Potential for bioenergy in conjunction with carbon capture and storage has been recognised.Geothermal energyNo study has yet been performed to investigate the geothermal potential of the country. Bioko island is volcanically-derived, and hence may be suitable for further geothermal exploration.HydropowerEquatorial Guinea is estimated to have 2,600 MW of hydropower potential. It is estimated that roughly half of this is economically exploitable, indicating a good potential for further hydropower uptake in the country. However, in 2008 hydroelectricity only had a installed capacity base of 1 MW, which also constituted the total installed capacity for renewable energy in the country.