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ClimateTechWiki

ClimateTechWiki offers a platform for a wide range of stakeholders in developed and developing countries who are involved in technology transfer and the wider context of low emission and low vulnerability development. ClimateTechWiki offers detailed information on a broad set of mitigation and adaptation technologies.

ClimateTechWiki

  • Smart grid

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    The smart grid is the state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art technology for electrical system that can sensibly execute the operations to all interconnected elements -­‐ from generator to consumers. Smart grid simply converts the conventional power grid towards the modern grid in order to regulate sustainable, economic and reliable electricity (Massoud &Wollenberg, 2005 and Gellings, 2009). Smart grid intelligently executes operations from primary and secondary generators through the transmission and distribution network to the different types of consumers.

  • Optimising aviation

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Improved air traffic management techniques like to avoid flying holding patterns, “green landings” and the use of relatively low speed airplanes for domestic aviation can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases substantially. Depending on their penetration up to 3% CO2 emission reduction can be achieved for green landings and 10-60% CO2 emission reduction for low speed airplanes. Moreover, these techniques will lower the NOx and soot emissions, thereby improving the air quality around the airport.

  • Conservation tillage

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Conventional tillage is the traditional method of farming in which soil is prepared for planting by completely inverting it with a tractor-pulled plough, followed by subsequent additional tillage to smooth the soil surface for crop cultivation. In contrast, conservation tillage is a tillage system that conserves soil, water and energy resources through the reduction of tillage intensity and retention of crop residue. Conservation tillage involves the planting, growing and harvesting of crops with limited disturbance to the soil surface.

  • Nutrient management: nitrogenous fertilisers

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Efficient use of nitrogenous fertilisers can reduce N2O emissions from agricultural fields. In addition, by reducing the quantity of synthetic fertilisers required, improved management can also reduce CO2 emissions associated with their manufacture. In this article a variety of fertiliser management technologies are discussed in brief, followed by a discussion on their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  • Fertiliser, manure and straw management (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Fertiliser and manure management in rice fields are important methane mitigation technologies. The fertiliser management mitigation option includes changes in: fertiliser types; fertiliser nutrient ratios; the rates and timing of applications; and use of nitrification inhibitors to reduce methane emissions by affecting methanogenesis in rice fields. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.

  • Fuel cells for mobile applications

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Fuel cells are used to produce electricity. They are considered a promising technology to replace conventional combustion engines in vehicles. Fuel cells may also replace batteries in portable electronic equipment. The most widely used types of fuel cells for mobile devices are Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) which are often used in vehicles, and Direct Methanol fuel cells, used in portable applications. PEM fuel cells use hydrogen or certain alcohols such as methanol as fuel.

  • Straw ammoniation and silage

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Straw ammoniation is a process by which low-value forage such as corn stalks, rice straw, wheat straw, and straw of other crops is ammoniated. Adding liquid ammonia, urea, or ammonium bicarbonate as ammonia sources result in the straw lignin being completely degraded, while the nutrients are enhanced. It is made more easily digestible by rumen microorganisms, which increases the digestibility of forage.

  • Ethanol Cook Stoves

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Alcohol burning stoves based on ethanol can be used for cooking, water heating and heating of buildings. The technology can be applied in households, institutions (e.g. schools) and industries where it is used for boiler heating. Ethanol is produced from sugar plants or other sources of biomass. An advantage of the technologies is that ethanol burning does not have the air pollution problems of simple biomass burning for cooking purposes. As ethanol provides a higher heat flux with no soot or smoke, cooking and hot water production can take place faster and pollution free.

  • Methanol cook stoves

    Type: 
    Technology
    Objective:

    Alcohol burning stoves based on methanol can be used to supply a cooking service, water heating and heating of buildings. The technology can be applied in households, institutions (e.g. schools) and industries where it is used for boiler heating.

  • Mid-season drainage (rice)

    Type: 
    Technology
    Sectors:
    Objective:

    Mid-season drainage involves the removal of surface flood water from the rice crop for about seven days towards the end of tillering. The duration of the dry period must be long enough for rice plant to experience visible moisture stress. Rice cultivation is responsible for 10% of GHG emissions from agriculture. In developing countries, the share of rice in GHG emissions from agriculture is even higher, e.g., it was 16% in 1994.