Climate Technology Centre and Network
Soil moisture monitoring is critical for managing water resources in an efficient manner. This applies to both irrigated and rainfed cropping systems. Water is increasingly becoming the most limiting resource needed to meet the food and fiber needs of a growing and more affluent population. Soil moisture monitoring can e.g. be used as a tool to assist irrigation scheduling. Irrigation management gives better crops, using fewer inputs, which increases profitability. Soil moisture sensors help with irrigation decisions.
The most commonly used conversion methods – combustion of waste to produce heat or electricity; anaerobic digestion to produce methane for heat or power production etc. all are well-established and commercial technologies. A further set of conversion processes – for example, the production of liquid fuels from cellulosic materials by biological or thermochemical conversion processes, such as pyrolysis – are at earlier stages of commercialisation or still under development.
Geothermal electricity is electricity generated from geothermal energy. Inside the Earth's crust there are several reservoirs with hot water which can be used for heating buildings and/or production of electricity. The process causes relatively little CO2 emissions (from the steam), which could potentially be reinjected in the earth's crust through carbon capture and storage. Contrary to conventional geothermal power plants, present generation plants re-inject the condensated steam or hot water into the underground acquifer so that the reservoir capacity could remain intact.
Biodiversity monitoring is to observe and check the changes in the status and demographics of resources, species, habitats, or ecological communities. Monitoring provides a record to track trends in biodiversity over time and is carried out to reinforce knowledge of the ecological system, to raise public and political awareness of environmental issues and stimulate action through the reporting of these trends. A range of processes exert pressures on biodiversity.