TNO is an independent research organisation which connects people and knowledge to create innovations that boost the competitive strength of industry and the well-being of society in a sustainable way. This is our mission and it is what drives us, the over 3,400 professionals at TNO, in our work every day. We work in collaboration with partners and focus on nine domains.
The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research
One approach to lowering the CO2 emission from traffic is the hybridization of vehicles. A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct power sources, i.e. hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Vehicles employed in urban areas like small passenger cars, local delivery trucks and city busses benefit from hybridization and show substantially lower CO2 emissions, ranging from 23 to 43% depending on the traffic dynamics.
Monitoring and evaluation of national promotion policies for energy efficiency and renewable energy within industrial and transport sectorsType:Technical AssistanceDate of submission:Phase:CompletedCountries:Sectors:
This Technology Transfer Advances Colombia's
- Strategy for Low Carbon Development (ECDBC), and the Program for Promotion of Rational and Efficient Use of Energy (PROURE).
- Nationally Determined Contribution to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 20% with respect to the projected BAU scenario by 2030 (unilateral and unconditional) and to increase its ambition to 30% with respect to BAU by 2030 (conditional and subject to international support).
Introduction to Climate Technologies for Mitigation: The role of climate technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions across sectorsType:WebinarDate and time:Wednesday, April 8, 2015 - Wednesday, April 8, 2015 Europe/Copenhagen
What can climate technologies do across all sectors to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change? Welcome to our fifth webinar in our new series. Join our CTCN Consortium Partner Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) for this introductory webinar on climate technologies for mitigation.
- Type:WebinarDate and time:Wednesday, August 26, 2015 - Wednesday, August 26, 2015 Europe/Paris
Join our CTCN Consortium Partner, the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, for this webinar on climate technology for energy efficiency in the industry.
The modal split for freight transport varies greatly by region, and is largely determined by geographical and economic factors. However there is a common trend towards more use of road transport, at the expense of rail and water transport. The latter modes have a substantially better environmental profile, but are limited by longer delivery times and the necessity of pre- and post-haulage by truck, i.e. inter-modal transport. In the logistic chain used nowadays, there are small local stocks and fast on demand delivery is required.
Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompasses a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).
Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompass a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).
Fuel cells are used to produce electricity. They are considered a promising technology to replace conventional combustion engines in vehicles. Fuel cells may also replace batteries in portable electronic equipment. The most widely used types of fuel cells for mobile devices are Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) which are often used in vehicles, and Direct Methanol fuel cells, used in portable applications. PEM fuel cells use hydrogen or certain alcohols such as methanol as fuel.
The smart grid is the state-‐of-‐the-‐art technology for electrical system that can sensibly execute the operations to all interconnected elements -‐ from generator to consumers. Smart grid simply converts the conventional power grid towards the modern grid in order to regulate sustainable, economic and reliable electricity (Massoud &Wollenberg, 2005 and Gellings, 2009). Smart grid intelligently executes operations from primary and secondary generators through the transmission and distribution network to the different types of consumers.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supply fresh air and condition the indoor air temperature and humidity of a building. HVAC is reported as the key energy user (37%) in US buildings (WBCSD, 2008), accounting for 59% of the energy used in China commercial buildings in 2000 (Levine et al., 2007). Therefore, HVAC is a key component of climate change mitigation potential in the building sector.
Cooling is becoming a rapidly emerging demand in developing countries, which signifies that the building design and shell measures need to reduce cooling loads, and the efficiency of air-conditioning will need to be improved. Air conditioning systems are implemented in numerous sectors, namely buildings, industry and transport. They are distinguished in two main categories, room air conditioners and central air conditioners.
Liquid biofuels for transport, including biodiesel, have to a certain extent been in use for a very long time. In recent years however, they are enjoying renewed interest in both developed and developing countries as a result of the need to curb rising emissions from the transport sector, reduce dependence on expensive fossil oil imports and increase farm incomes.
A plug in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle with the ability to recharge its energy storage with electricity from an off-board power source such as a grid. PHEVs have the potential to displace a significant amount of fuel in the next 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that they can reduce fuel consumption by up to 45% relative to that of a comparable combustion engine vehicle.
The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in transport is a suitable option to power large long-distance trucks in areas where gas is transported as liquefied natural gas because there are indigenous gas supplies and no gas network. The use of LNG in passenger cars is far less viable because on average passenger cars stand idle more often, which would give rise to high evaporative losses.
Pulverised coal power plants account for about 97% of the world's coal-fired capacity. The conventional types of this technology have an efficiency of around 35%. For a higher efficiency of the technology supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired technologies have been developed. These technologies can combust pulverised coal and produce steam at higher temperatures and under a higher pressure, so that an efficiency level of 45% can be reached (ultra-supercritical plants).
Improved air traffic management techniques like to avoid flying holding patterns, “green landings” and the use of relatively low speed airplanes for domestic aviation can reduce the emission of greenhouse gases substantially. Depending on their penetration up to 3% CO2 emission reduction can be achieved for green landings and 10-60% CO2 emission reduction for low speed airplanes. Moreover, these techniques will lower the NOx and soot emissions, thereby improving the air quality around the airport.
Refrigerators are used in households across the world to store food at a temperature of about 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F) in order prevent it from spoiling. This technology description focuses on refrigerators for residential use and on energy efficiency performance only. It does not take into account potential GHG effects caused by the refrigerant.
Technologies and measures which are aimed at reducing the use of energy in buildings could have several advantages, such as lower energy bills, increasing comfort of living or working, and reduced impact on the environment, including reduction of CO2 emissions. The options considered for energy savings particularly leading to CO2 emission reductions include the following:
Energy Webinar: How gender-responsive methodologies can support Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)Type:WebinarDate and time:Friday, January 27, 2017 - Friday, January 27, 2017 America/New York
Gender mainstreaming in the energy sector is taking place institutionally, through national policies and reforms, and through project development and implementation.
Non-motorised transport (NMT) is often a key element of successfully encouraging clean urban transport. It can be a very attractive mode of transport for relatively short distances, which make up the largest share of trips in cities. The key to reversing the trend towards more private vehicle use is making walking and cycling attractive, together with improving public transport. This can be done by a range of activities including construction of sidewalks and bike lanes, bike sharing programmes, urban planning and pedestrian-oriented development.