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Operational Analysis and Methods for Wind Integration Studies

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Michael Milligan, Erik Ela, Debra Lew, David Corbus, Yih-huei Wan, Bri-Mathias Hodge, Brendan Kirby
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This paper surveys key methods of wind power grid integration, focusing on operational analysis, operating reserves, energy market considerations and integration costs. The study also suggestions improvements for the methods and assumptions used for cases with high levels of wind penetration. For operating reserves, the study examines the evolving methodologies used in various studies at the state and regional levels to evaluate the need for contingency reserve and regulation reserve, including new reserve types, such as load following reserves that are not yet standard system operating practices.