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Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fuel-Efficiency Simulation: A Comparison of US and EU Tools

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Vicente Franco, Oscar Delgado, Rachel Muncrief
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This report describes the use of simulation tools to certify the whole-vehicle efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles, and the authors compare the tools used for the regulatory quantification of carbon dioxide emissions from heavy-duty vehicles in the United States (GEM tool) and the European Union (VECTO tool). The comparison of the independently developed tools is intended to explore their differences. This report focuses on the characteristics that set each model apart from the other.