The project “Advancing REDD in the Kolo Hills Forests” (ARKFor) was implemented in 2010-14 by the African wldlife foundation (AWF) and its partners CAMCO, Selian agricultural research institute (SARI) and Kondoa District council (KDC) in 21 villages surrounding the government owned Kolo Hills forests.
The evaluation uses the standard OECD/DAC evaluation criteria of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability. In addition, the evaluation team used four crosscutting result areas of REDD+ readiness, policy testing, REDD+ results and broad stakeholder involvement to review project outcomes which were also defined in the terms of reference to be the key evaluation considerations. The review is based on the desk review of relevant documents and visits to KDC , project villages and project partners in the city of Arusha, in northern Tanzania, in February 2015.
Recommendations to AWF and partners:
AWF should document and disseminate their experiences on outsourcing of the carbon project contract.
The data collected during the forest assessment should be used more efficiently, recorded tree heights should be included in biomass estimation calculations.
The monitoring of project results should be improved and when necessary, project strategies and activities should be changed according to the analysis of data. A follow up socio-economic survey is required in order to determine if the economic impacts of sustainable agriculture are statistically significant.
Sustainable agriculture development should specifically target poorer households by identifying varieties of crops and agricultural practices that can improve food security in resource-poor households.
Pro-poor and gender targeting needs more strategic planning that can be undertaken once socio-economic impacts are properly analyzed, including the analysis of the benefit sharing mechanism.
AWF should develop efficient fuelwood strategies in a participatory way, to encourage wider adoption of new technologies among community members – this includes charcoal and brick making, as well as woodstoves.
The scope for collaborating with TANAPA to monitor flows in the Tarangire River, for which the Kolo Hills are a major source, should be explored. Consequently, AWF should develop revenue generating and PES strategies from Tarangire River conservation in partnership with TANAPA.
Following the model of Carbon Tanzania, which is selling forest carbon from communities in northern Tanzania, AWF should develop a strategy whereby tourism companies operating around the Kolo Hills and in Tarangire National Park are approached to enter into Corporate Social Responsibility agreements to fund project activities.
Recommendations to NCMC, TFS and REDD+ practitioners:
Land-use planning is an essential activity for REDD+, especially in areas with little forest cover and growing population. Spatial data sets such as LULC maps as well as remote sensing and GIS data can be used to conduct a spatially sensitive participatory process with communities.
The data collected during forest assessments should be used more efficiently, especially the harmonisation of data collection and analysis protocols with NAFORMA is recommended. In particular, NAFORMA tree species lists and codes should be applied as it would increase the comparability of carbon data from the other REDD+ projects and with the NAFORMA dataset.
Wherever possible, TFS should support the VFS with funds and should consider further developing JFM agreements that allow for sales of environmental services such as carbon.
TFS should put greater effort nationally into supporting forest law enforcement since this will make illegal forest products reflect their true costs and hence make forest products from PFM and REDD+ more competitive in the market place.
Recommendation to policy makers supporting the National REDD+ process:
Addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation from multi-sectoral angles (energy, agriculture, enterprise development) is necessary for effective climate change activities. REDD+ has to get out of the “forestry box” and engage multiple stakeholders across several sectors.