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Coastal wetlands include both freshwater and saltwater ecosystems that are situated in coastal watersheds where the water drains into the ocean. There are two main types of coastal wetlands, tidal (affected by ocean tides) and non-tidal marshes, swamps, mangroves and sea grass beds. Both grow directly in the intertidal zone. Coastal wetlands play an important role for climate change adaptation. They are effective carbon sequesters, while the vegetation and stable sediment and soil conditions of the wetlands decrease the velocity of waves, protecting coastlines from storms and flooding. They are also highly productive systems that support a diversity of species and positively affect water quality through purification and sedimentation processes. Coastal wetlands are often hotspots of biodiversity, providing a favourable environment for breeding, feeding and the existence of many species.