This report discusses alternative energy scenarios that focus on clean technology, increasing energy efficiency and fuel switching. Fuel switching must be carefully adapted to the situation in each country. When combined with other options, fuel switching could reduce the 2030 emission of sulphur oxides to below the 1990 level, and it could limit the increase of nitrogen oxides to 40%. The study shows that the technology to reduce environmental pressures in the region to sustainable levels is available; however, capital will be required to make the necessary changes politically and financially feasible.
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