This report address two questions: What are the environmental, social and economic impacts of using alternative fuels compared with conventional fuels in cement manufacturing? How does the use of alternatives in cement manufacturing compare with other possible end-of-life options like recycling or disposal in landfills? Systematic reviews collate, analyze and synthesize the body evidence from both academia and practice on a topic. As a result, they provide a powerful tool in moving forward research, business practice and public policy. For this review, the research team identified 110 prior studies from academic, institutional and practitioner sources that addressed the research questions.