The invention describes a novel method and apparatus for high efficiency optical sensing using micro-scale optical structures integrated with photodetectors and methods for making the same. The present invention has been implemented into a system and results in high efficiency low cost and small form factor concentrating photovoltaics systems. This invention for the first time integrates wafer-level optical concentrating elements with solar cells in order to enhance conversion efficiency and reduce costs. The use of mature semiconductor processing technology and misalignment-tolerant integration results in low cost manufacturing methods. These methods along with the basic concepts of the invention will benefit photodetection in various areas.
1) High-efficiency optical sensing and multijunction solar cells 2) High-efficiency low-cost photovoltaics 3) Benefit photodetection in areas such as optical sensing photovoltaics optical interconnects illumination etc.