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Uganda

Official Name:
Republic of Uganda

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Maxwell Otim Onapa
Position:
Director, Research UNFCCC-CTCN-NDE Focal Point
Phone:
+256 417 888 200 +256 772997450
Emails:
Maxwell_otim@yahoo.com maxwell.otim@gmail.com maxwell.otim@mosti.go.ug

Energy profile

Uganda (2012)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The level of electrification is very low, and in 2009, only about 9% of the population had access to the electricity grid. In rural areas, where more than 85% of the population lives, roughly 1% of the households are connected to the grid, while the remainder generate electricity from household diesel generators, batteries and solar photovoltaic systems (PV). Due to the lack of grid development, a number of companies generate their own electricity, including Kilembe Mines and Kasese Cobalt Ltd. As of 2010, the transmission network of the country consisted of 1,161.6 km of 132 kV lines, with the distribution network operating at 33 kV.

Renewable energy potential

Solar energyUganda has an average of 5-6 kWh/m2/day of solar insolation, with an average of 8 sunshine hours per day, yearly, indicating an excellent potential for solar energy use.  Solar energy is currently used primarily for off-grid electrification for rural communities, as well as for solar cooking, and providing water heating and power to public buildings, for example hospitals. An estimated 200 MW of potential electrical capacity are available in Uganda, and currently, a 50MW solar thermal plant, at Namugoga in Wakiso District outside of Kampala, is being investigated by a private firm, Solar Energy for Africa. Solar cooking also holds a significant potential in the country, with a large number of the population living in well-insolated areas, without access to energy services.Wind energyWind speeds are estimated to average 3-3.5 m/s, indicating a moderate potential for wind power. Studies have concluded that whilst the wind resource is insufficient for large-scale power generation, possible applications for the technology exist, for example, water pumping and small-scale power generation in mountainous areas. Small industries in rural areas, where targets for a mill range from 2.5kV to 10kV, could benefit from the wind resource. Currently, no large-scale developments are being made in the wind power sector of the country.Biomass energyBioenergy, apart from hydropower, is considered to be the second significant pillar to secure energy supply, particularly in rural areas. The transition from traditional biomass, which is often perceived as inefficient, to modern biomass and biofuel production and consumption is a main focal area of the government. Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Limited and Kinyara Sugar Limited are both licensed to generate electricity for sale to the national grid from bagasse, providing 12 MW and 5 MW respectively in 2010. Biomass cogeneration from agricultural wastes is seen to hold particular promise as a technology for the country, and a significant peat resource also exists, of which approximately 25 million tonnes is feasibly available for power generation, equivalent to 800 MW of potential capacity for 50 years. A limited program of biogas digester distribution was undertaken in the 1990s, and 50 digesters were installed in five districts in the country by 2004.Geothermal energy Uganda has an estimated geothermal resource potential of 450 MW, mainly located in the Western Rift valley part of the country (Katwe Kikorongo, Buranga and Kibiro). Feasibility studies are recommended to improve confidence in the resource and promote development.Hydropower Despite Uganda’s vast hydropower potential, estimated at 3000 MW, less than 10% is currently exploited. Bujagali, the third large hydropower plant on the Nile River is currently under construction, with an anticipated capacity of 250MW. Numerous other hydropower ventures are being investigated by both Ugandan and Japanese contractors, as well as the government. A number of small hydropower plants, with total installed capacity of slightly over 15MW, are in operation in various parts of the country, with a further 60 MW of projects in the development stage. An estimated 1,300 MW of large hydropower and 51.7 MW of small-hydro capacity are yet to be developed in Uganda.

Energy framework

The Electricity Act 1999This act enabled private participation in the electricity sector, and established the Electricity Regulatory Authority (ERA) as the energy regulator for the country. The Act legislated for the unbundling of the former UEB into the three utility groups operating today.The National Energy Policy 2002The policy goal in the energy sector is to meet the energy needs of the Ugandan population for social and economic development in an environmentally sustainable manner. Specific objectives under the energy policy include assessing the availability and demand of energy resources in the country, improving energy service access to reduce poverty, improve governance in the energy sector and institute improved administrative procedures, and stimulate the economic development of the energy sector, whilst minimising environmental impacts.Renewable Energy Policy 2007Uganda is one of the few African countries with a clearly focussed renewable energy policy, which was published by the Ministry for Energy, Minerals and Development (MEMD) in 2007. Its objectives include increasing access to modern, affordable and reliable energy services as a contribution to poverty eradication. This comprises general public access to electricity and enhancing the modernisation of biomass conversion technologies.  The overall policy goal is:  “To increase the use of modern renewable energy, from the current 4% to 61% of the total energy consumption by the year 2017”. The Renewable Energy Policy establishes a Standardised Power Purchase Agreement and Feed-in Tariffs for renewable energy generation projects.  It introduces favourable financial and fiscal regimes for RETs, including:preferential tax treatment or tax exemption,accelerated depreciation,provision of risk mitigation mechanisms and credit enhancement instruments,credit mechanisms for renewable energy consumers.

Source
Static Source:
  • Beyond Fire: How to Achieve Sustainable Cooking

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    This report provides an overview of the main technological pathways to fundamentally transform the cooking sector in developing countries to sustainable sources. It provides an analysis of the main technological options and an estimate of their costs and feasibility.

  • Linking Heat and Electricity Systems: Co-generation and District Heating and Cooling Solutions for a Clean Energy Future

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This report highlights two underutilized but fully implementable technologies that efficiently integrate heat and electricity systems, provide flexibility and enhance energy security. It examines what restricts co‑generation and efficient district heating and cooling systems that can help de-carbonize the energy system.

  • Beyond Fire: How to Achieve Sustainable Cooking

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Approach:

    This report provides an overview of the main technological pathways to fundamentally transform the cooking sector in developing countries to sustainable sources. It provides an analysis of the main technological options and an estimate of their costs and feasibility.

  • SMARTer2030 - ICT Solutions for 21st Century Challenges

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    SMARTer2030 is the third instalment in the acclaimed GeSI series of SMART reports, demonstrating the enabling potential of ICT in eight different sectors (from buildings to energy, from transport to agriculture and healthcare), and how ICT solutions can support the transition to a low-carbon economy while delivering business opportunities and improving people's quality of life.

  • SystemTransformation - How Digital Solutions Will Drive Progress Towards the Sustainable Development Goals

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Building on the findings of the GeSI SMARTer2030 report, #SystemTransformation looks at how ICT will be instrumental in the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The report analyzes the current SDGs implementation gaps, identifies the key features that make ICT a fundamental tool to achieve the Goals, and provides a deep-dive into those Goals where the ICT contribution can be most immediate and important.

  • Adaptation Planning with Communities: Practitioner Brief 1

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    The brief provides a conceptual overview of ALP's Community Adaptation Action Planning (CAAP) process, as well as explanations and examples of how it works in practice, based on ALP experiences in Ghana and Niger. It describes how to progress from climate vulnerability and capacity assessments in a participatory community planning process. ALP community plans focused on livelihoods and natural resource issues, but the CAAP process described applies for addressing all climate sensitive sectors, for example health, education, energy, or social safety nets.

  • FOKABS INC.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    FOKABS’ mission is to contribute towards climate-resilient and low-carbon development solutions. The company provides advisory services on climate change, especially in developing countries. FOKABS offers services in capacity building, project development, climate finance and international negotiations in the areas of nationally determined contributions (NDC), national adaptation plans (NAP), reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), CDM, and NAMA.

  • IFDC Perspectives

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Perspectives is a biannual publication of the International Fertilizer
    Development Center (IFDC). Unless otherwise noted, printed material
    published in Perspectives is in the public domain and may be freely
    reproduced. Source acknowledgment and a copy of any reproduction are
    requested. Electronic versions in English and French are available at ifdc.org.

  • IFDC Magazine Volume 40 No 4

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    The IFDC Magazine is a quarterly publication of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC). Unless otherwise noted, printed material published in the IFDC Magazine is in the public domain and may be freely reproduced. Source acknowledgment and a copy of any reproduction are requested. Electronic versions in English and French are available at ifdc.org.

  • IFDC Magazine Volume 40 Nov 3

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    The IFDC Magazine is a quarterly publication of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC). Unless otherwise noted, printed material published in the IFDC Magazine is in the public domain and may be freely reproduced. Source acknowledgment and a copy of any reproduction are requested. Electronic versions in English and French are available at ifdc.org.