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Tanzania

Official Name:
United Republic of Tanzania

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Name:
Dr. Gerald Majella Kafuku
Position:
Principal Research Officer
Phone:
+255 766 604977
Emails:
kafukugm@gmail.com gkafuku@costech.or.tz

Energy profile

Tanzania (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Tanzania’s national electrification rate lies at just 14% – with less than 3% in rural areas.

Renewable energy potential

SolarThe mean solar energy density is about 4.5kW per square metre per day, which indicates its potential use as an energy source. Some solar developers are seeking to set up large solar PV projects..Wind EnergyPotential areas for wind areas have been mapped by TANESCO. There are several areas in the country, predominantly along the coast, with attractive wind speeds.HydroHydroelectricity is the most important indigenous source of commercial energy, with a recognised potential of 4.7 GW of installed capacity and 3.2 GW of firm capacity. Only 15% of the potential installed capacity has been developed and several projects are currently soliciting funding.Geographically, the hydro power potentials of Tanzania are located in the Rift Valley escarpments in the West, Southwest and Northeast regions of Tanzania. The planned large-scale hydropower generation sources include Ruhudji (360 MW), Rumakali (220 MW), and Stieglers Gorge (2,100 MW). The latter may have the potential to produce enough electricity to justify investments in extending the national grid, and has been under discussion for decades due to a number of environmental and social issues.GeothermalThere is a high potential for geothermal power generation in Tanzania, with temperatures of up to 255 oC (dry steam). At least 15 thermal areas with hot spring activity could be justifiable development projects. The total potential geothermal power in 50 identified sites is 650 MW. The Songwe site in Mbeya region alone has an estimated potential of 100 MW of electricity. At issue is that some of the identified sites, such as Lake Natron, are in or near reserves such as Lake Manyara and Ngorongoro. Geothermal exploitation involves changing the flows of underground water, which in some cases have led to draining of nearby lakes. While the potential Tanzania is considerable, it should be kept in mind that estimates are more than an order of magnitude less than in neighbouring Kenya.

Energy framework

The 2003 National Energy PolicyThe National Energy Policy was adopted in 2003 with the main objective of addressing national energy needs. Subsidiary objectives included developing domestic cost-effective energy resources; improving energy reliability, efficiency, and security; and reducing forest depletion. This sector policy statement is significant as it is the first sector policy to refer to climate change explicitly in its text. The energy policy put much emphasis on the promotion of efficient biomass conversion and end use technologies to enhance the conservation of woodlands. Through these objectives the policy is linked directly to climate change, as specified in one of the policy’s statements:‘37. Promote efficient biomass conversion and end-use technologies in order to save resources; reduce the rate of deforestation and land degradation; and minimise threats of climate change.’Feed-in-TariffTanzania has had a feed-in tariff scheme in place since 2008 for small power producers (100 kW to 10 MW). Above that size, the FIT is negotiable. Feed-in tariffs for small power producers are adjusted annually by the Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Authority (EWURA) and are based on the avoided cost of the electricity. That means that they are undifferentiated by renewable energy technologies and that there is no guaranteed price over the long term even if a power purchase agreement (PPA) is signed for a 15-year period. Within the standardized FIT scheme there are tariffs for feeding into the main grid and into isolated mini-grids.For balancing the higher generation costs in dry seasons, when the availability of hydropower is lower than in wet seasons and thermal power plants have to generate more expensive power, the standardized FIT is differentiated according to the season. In 2012, it averaged $0.093 per kilowatt hour, while the Standardized Small Power Purchase Tariff 2012 for mini-grids was at $0.294. The tariff is calculated on the basis of avoided and incremental costs in mini-grids.Scaling up Renewable Energy Programme-Tanzania (SREP-Tanzania)Tanzania is one of the pilot countries that were selected to prepare SREP Investment Plans in October 2012. The objective of the SREP-Tanzania Investment Plan is to catalyse the large-scale development of renewable energy to transform the country’s energy sector from one that is increasingly dependent on fossil fuels to one that is more balanced and diversified, with a greater share of renewable energy sources. The SREP-Tanzania IP was prepared by the Government of Tanzania, through a National Task Force led by the Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) with support from the Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs).

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  • Proceedings follow-up meeting climate change adaptation and policymaking

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    This report include findings during workshop held in Nairobi on capacities needed to better integrated climate change adaptation responses into agricultural, rural development and natural resources policy processes for climate change adaptation in Eastern Africa.Discussions include; Core functions for adapting to climate change; Regional linkages and initiatives; High level policy forum meeting; Specific Activities to respond to climate change adaptation. The initiative was supported by Wageningen UR in partnership with ASARECA and IUCN.

  • Energy, climate change and poverty alleviation - policy paper

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    The papers from three of GNESD’s Member centres examine different aspects of the complex links between climate change, energy and poverty, to help clarify the debate and to demonstrate that the issues, while complex, are nonetheless perfectly manageable. The most salient finding of the studies is that energy, in spite of its pivotal role for sustainable development and for successful adaptation, is hardly mentioned in the adaptation plans prepared by developing countries under the UNFCCC’s National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPA) process.

  • Realising REDD + national strategy and policy options

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    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) started as a global initiative. More than 40 countries are developing national REDD+ strategies and policies, and hundreds of REDD+ projects have been initiated across the tropics.This book wants to inform these national and local processes, by asking some basic questions: How are participating countries going to reduce emissions and increase carbon stocks that they hope to be paid for through global mechanisms?

  • Strategies for adapting to climate change in rural sub-Saharan Africa

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    Adaptation strategies must target those populations most vulnerable to global change and equip those unable to adapt—generally the poorest—with the tools and incentives that will enable them to do so. This report profiles the available climate change–related datasets and their accessibility and procurement details in the 10 Association of Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA ) member countries.

  • Shaping climate resilient development

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    This paper presents an assessment of climate risks from the existing climate as well as from a range of scenarios. It assesses the expected annual loss to economies from existing climate patterns, a projection of the extent to which future economic growth will put greater value at risk, and the incremental loss that could occur over a twenty-year period under a range of climate change scenarios based on the latest scientific knowledge.

  • Should Africa take the renewable energy path?

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    Modern energy services are essential for reducing poverty. Countries need energy to increase economic production, which improves livelihood options for women and men. Energy is also needed to increase agricultural productivity, provide clean water and improve human health, and energy enables girls and boys to go to school.The briefing discusses how climate change is complicating the energy situation in many parts of Africa. For example, changing rainfall patterns have led to droughts, affecting hydropower generation in many countries.

  • Rural Africa at the crossroads: livelihoods, practices and policies

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    The last two decades of the 20th century have been a period of change for sub-Saharan African economies. Structural Adjustment Programmes have triggered a huge, unplanned income diversification response in African rural areas making rural populations become more occupationally flexible, spatially mobile and increasingly dependent on non-agricultural income-generating activities.

  • The CDM project potential in sub-Saharan Africa

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    This report assesses opportunities and challenges for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) in sub-Saharan African countries, namely Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. It analyses the technical potentials for CDM projects per sector as well as a review of the Kyoto infrastructure and an evaluation of Grid Emissions Factors.

  • Women as key players in climate adaptation

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    Gender often dictates who gains and who loses in environmental disasters: where women lack basic rights, more will die from natural disasters than men; where they enjoy equal rights, the death rate is the same.

  • Climate Change and Gender Justice

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    Awareness of the complex and dynamic links between gender relations and climate change is growing fast in gender and development (GAD) circles and among women’s rights activists, but in mainstream policies they still tend to be overlooked. This book offers information and evidence towards a more informed, nuanced gender perspective in the context of climate change.