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Netherlands

Official Name:
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Energy profile

Netherlands (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

The Netherlands has a well-developed electricity grid with respect to security of supply and cross border interconnections. Per year about 110 TWh of electrical energy is supplied in the Netherlands to end users through (non) public grids. Of this amount about 18 TWh is imported from neighbouring countries.For a long time the Netherlands had only two interconnections with Belgium and three with Germany. However, TenneT has expanded this capacity to now include additional interconnections with the United Kingdom (via the 1,000 MW BritNed cable) and with Norway (via the 700 MW NorNed cable). Interconnection with Norway allows for better capacity utilisation because of the noncoincident peak demand periods of the two countries. Specifically, electricity consumption in Norway is relatively high at night time and so the Netherlands typically exports electricity to Norway during the night as it is cheaper and also allows Norway to save the water in its reservoirs for use during the day. In turn, Norway exports electricity to the Netherlands during the daytime peak hours, when electricity is expensive. Importantly, Dutch market parties are able to import renewable hydropower from Norway via the NorNed cable.

Renewable energy potential

Solar

Solar energy in the Netherlands represents only a small proportion of sustainable energy consumption (1%). On the other hand, the Netherlands has considerable knowhow, and is sixth in the world for solar energy patent applications and supply components of solar cells for the foreign markets. Important cost savings can be achieved by making solar cells thinner or by using different materials. An international distinguishing feature of Dutch solar thermal products is the drainback technology that is applied, which has benefits of maintenance-free use, and insensitivity to frost and overheating.

Wind Energy

Wind energy accounts for more than 30% of all sustainable energy in the Netherlands. Wind energy is Dutch government’s most effective means of achieving sustainable energy production. The Netherlands are ranked fourth highest in Europe in terms of wind power production and has considerable wind energy expertise. Initially, wind farms were placed onshore, but since 2006, they can be found offshore as well. Offshore wind parks are clearly not economically feasible without governmental support. Nevertheless, wind parks on land can be economically feasible. All the initiators of the Q7 Amalia offshore wind park stated that building at sea is twice as expensive as on land. The Princess Amalia offshore wind farm is the largest of its kind in the world outside the 12-mile limit, and is also built in the deepest water.

Onshore wind energy will continue to be one of the cheapest ways of generating renewable energy in the years ahead. This energy option has a potential of approximately 48 PJ by 2020 (2.3 percentage points), equivalent to the output of wind farms with a total capacity of around 6,000 MW.

Biomass

As biomass is envisaged to play a major role in fulfilling national targets concerning the reduction of CO2-emissions and the introduction of renewable energy sources, ambitious targets have been set. In the EOS-LT program, with respect to co-firing, 25% biomass co-firing (on energy basis) is foreseen for 2020, whereas in 2040 40% biomass co-firing should be realised. In the overall long-term vision of covering 30% of the total energy consumption of the Netherlands by biomass energy in 2040, and covering 20-45% of the feed-stock requirements of the chemical industry with biomass, large-scale import of biomass (either wood or grass-like) will be required. The Netherlands have a considerable domestic biomass potential. The domestic biomass potential, i.e. various waste streams adding up to approximately 100-120 PJ and theoretically another 50 PJ made by “energy farming”, might be converted through (de-central) small scale biomass plants. The domestic biomass potential, i.e. various waste streams adding up to approximately 100-120 PJ and theoretically another 50 PJ made by “energy farming”, might be converted through (de-central) small scale biomass plants.

Biogas

Biofuel niche development in the Netherlands seems to be characterized by a dual track approach. A small PVO/biodiesel niche emerged, but this is not very visible. In order to comply with the EU directive on biofuels, setting a target for a 2% biofuel mix in 2005 and a 5.75% mix in 2010, the Dutch government chose for obliging oil companies to distribute an amount of biofuel equal to 2% of the total amount of transport fuel distributed, starting in 2007. The plan is to increase the amount of biofuel distribution successively. Moreover, there are hardly any filling stations providing pure, or high blend, biofuels in the Netherlands. The second research driven track focuses on advanced fuels, but this has not led to any large-scale experimentation. Advanced fuels remain a promise.

Hydro

Despite its long interaction with water, the Netherlands has little potential for hydropower due to its flat topography. The Netherlands has a large resource of moving water in its major rivers but its limited hydraulic head because of little elevation change means that hydropower is a minor component of the country's renewable energy portfolio. A few small hydro plants exist but in total produce less than a tenth of a percent of the Netherlands' electricity.

Energy framework

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)

The NREAP for the Netherlands was submitted in July 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC is 14% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year is 14.5%. In October 2012 a new coalition agreement was presented, in which the ambition for the Netherlands was increased to 16% (overall) renewable energy by the year 2020. According to the projection, the most important contribution in the year 2020 is expected from wind power (32.4 TWh or 2787 ktoe, 38% of all renewable energy). The second important contribution is expected from biomass (renewable heating and cooling) (1520 ktoe, 21% of all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from biomass (renewable electricity) (16.6 TWh or 1431 ktoe, 19% of all renewable energy). Wind power contributes with 11.2 GW (32.4 TWh) in the year 2020 (onshore wind 6.0 GW and 13.4 TWh, offshore wind 5.2 GW and 19.0 TWh). For photovoltaic power the 2020 contribution is projected to be 0.7 GW (0.6 TWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 23 ktoe. The two most important biofuels are projected to contribute 552 ktoe (biodiesel) and 282 ktoe (bioethanol / bio-ETBE) by 2020. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts to 12.0 TWh (1030 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 4.7 TWh (401 ktoe). The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to 650 ktoe for solid biomass and 288 ktoe for biogas. A contribution of 582 ktoe is expected from bio-methane for grid feed-in by the year 2020.

National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP)

The Netherlands has adopted a National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008-2016 (NEEAP), which sets an energy  savings target of 51.2 TWh (or 4.4 Mtoe) by 2016 to be achieved in buildings, transport and small industries (excluding sectors under ETS). The second NEEAP, submitted in mid-2011, stated that the country can expect to exceed this target by 45%.Clean and Efficient ProgramThe Clean and Efficient Program, launched in 2007, aims to improve energy efficiency by 2% / year over the period 2011-2020 and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 30% by 2020 compared with 1990. The program uses different measures to achieve its objectives, including energy efficiency standards.

SDE+ premium feed-in scheme

In the Netherlands, the main support instrument for renewable energy is the SDE+ premium feed-in scheme. This support scheme promotes renewable energy sources used for electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes. It encompasses a system of phased admission with escalating base tariffs, which favours low cost RES options. Besides the premium scheme, investments in renewable energy technologies are supported via loans and various tax benefits. Moreover, net-metering applies to small installations. Access of electricity from renewable energy sources to the grid shall be granted according to the principle of non-discrimination. Grid operators are generally obliged to develop the grid to provide sufficient capacity for the access and transmission of electricity. Heat from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (bonuses on top of the wholesale price) as well as tax benefits.The Netherlands has adopted an obligation scheme which should result in a 10% RES share of energy consumption in the transport sector. Tax credits exist for biofuel and hydrogen related RES-T investments. Regarding policies, the Dutch Energy Agency facilitates market parties and specific organisations to establish training and certification facilities for RES installers and installations. Innovation in energy is supported through innovation contracts between private companies, universities, R&D institutes. In the framework of the Energieinvesteringsaftrek, tax credits are available for RES-H infrastructure.

A biofuel obligation has been in place over the past few years, but the last year for which a mandatory biofuel quota is mentioned is 2010. Quotas for 2011-2014 are not mentioned in the NREAP, but are envisaged to increase slightly; this is yet to be decided by parliament.For companies investing in renewable energy source (RES) projects, a tax relief (EIA) exists, which contributes substantially to the project’s economic viability. Annual budgets are limited and regularly exhausted for some technologies and underexploited for others.

The Green Deal

The Green Deal was presented on 3 October 2011. It constitutes an arrangement between the Dutch Government and society, namely citizens, enterprises, authorities and other organisations, and is designed to help them implement plans for achieving sustainability. The Green Deal aims to eliminate obstacles, for example statutory and regulatory problems, ensure effective and objective information provision and bring about effective cooperation. In practice, simple solutions such as better cooperation between government and local enterprises often turn out to promote the implementation of new sustainable projects. The Green Deal covers specific projects in such areas as energy saving, sustainable energy, sustainable mobility and sustainable use of raw materials and water. The Dutch Government is set to conclude further Green Deals with society in the coming years. Citizens, enterprises, organisations and other authorities are asked to come up with new proposals by February 2012, with the themes covered being energy, raw materials, mobility and water.

Source
Static Source:
  • Beyond Fire: How to Achieve Sustainable Cooking

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    This report provides an overview of the main technological pathways to fundamentally transform the cooking sector in developing countries to sustainable sources. It provides an analysis of the main technological options and an estimate of their costs and feasibility.

  • Linking Heat and Electricity Systems: Co-generation and District Heating and Cooling Solutions for a Clean Energy Future

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This report highlights two underutilized but fully implementable technologies that efficiently integrate heat and electricity systems, provide flexibility and enhance energy security. It examines what restricts co‑generation and efficient district heating and cooling systems that can help de-carbonize the energy system.

  • Beyond Fire: How to Achieve Sustainable Cooking

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Approach:

    This report provides an overview of the main technological pathways to fundamentally transform the cooking sector in developing countries to sustainable sources. It provides an analysis of the main technological options and an estimate of their costs and feasibility.

  • SMARTer2030 - ICT Solutions for 21st Century Challenges

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    SMARTer2030 is the third instalment in the acclaimed GeSI series of SMART reports, demonstrating the enabling potential of ICT in eight different sectors (from buildings to energy, from transport to agriculture and healthcare), and how ICT solutions can support the transition to a low-carbon economy while delivering business opportunities and improving people's quality of life.

  • SystemTransformation - How Digital Solutions Will Drive Progress Towards the Sustainable Development Goals

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Building on the findings of the GeSI SMARTer2030 report, #SystemTransformation looks at how ICT will be instrumental in the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The report analyzes the current SDGs implementation gaps, identifies the key features that make ICT a fundamental tool to achieve the Goals, and provides a deep-dive into those Goals where the ICT contribution can be most immediate and important.

  • FOKABS INC.

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Canada
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    FOKABS’ mission is to contribute towards climate-resilient and low-carbon development solutions. The company provides advisory services on climate change, especially in developing countries. FOKABS offers services in capacity building, project development, climate finance and international negotiations in the areas of nationally determined contributions (NDC), national adaptation plans (NAP), reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), CDM, and NAMA.

  • Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Spain
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    The Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas - CIEMAT) is a public research organization focused on energy and environment and the technologies related to them. The CIEMAT main lines of action are the study, development, promotion and optimization of various sources as renewable energies, study of their impact on the environment, development of new technologies; not forgetting areas of basic research such as high-energy physics and molecular and cellular biology.

  • ALTEREA

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    France
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member

    Created in 2004, ALTEREA is a fast-growing energy-savings company of 100 experts specialized in improving the energy performance, the architectural quality and the exploitation of buildings. ALTEREA’s expertise consists in forming a comprehensive suite of energy-management services, retrofits and deep renovations to help its clients to reduce their energy consumption, greenhouse gases emissions, etc.

  • Summer School. Climate Change Mitigation: Options and Policies

    Type: 
    Event
    Date:
    Monday, August 14, 2017 - Friday, August 18, 2017 Europe/Copenhagen
    Country:
    Netherlands

    The UN Climate Technology Centre & Network (CTCN) and the EU-funded CARISMA project on innovation for climate change mitigation jointly organise a summer school course on climate change mitigation. The course will take place from 14 through 18 August 2017 as part of the Radboud Summer School programme in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The course is targeted at post-graduates, PhD students or junior professionals in public service working on the topic of climate change mitigation.