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Namibia

Official Name:
Republic of Namibia

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Dr. Jonathan Mutau Kamwi
Phone:
+264 61 2842808
Emails:
mutauk@yahoo.co.uk

Energy profile

Namibia (2014)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Namibian urban households’ electrification is estimated at 70%, whereas for rural households, it has reached 25% in 2011.

Renewable energy potential

Presently, in Namibia, RE technologies are being widely used mostly for off-grid energisation and domestic water heating. Successful bigger RE projects, however, are found scattered in isolation all over the country. The most recent project and probably biggest is the wind park close to Lüderitz that is expected to be completed by mid-2013. Other examples are the first commercial solar power plant in Namibia, which is due to commence in the future, and will be divided into 10 MW each at Gerus, Osana and Kokerbook, the equipment of the Shamalindi Primary School near Grootfontein with a solar plant and the complementing of UNAM’s Northern Campus in Ongwediva with a grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic system, which was at the time the largest of its kind in Namibia.Furthermore, an initiative by the Austrian government, which ran until May 2012, aptly named Southern African Solar Thermal Training and Demonstration Initiative (SolTrain), assisted Southern African countries, including Namibia, to switch from a fossil fuel based energy supply to sustainable energy supply systems based on RE by setting up RE demonstration units at social institutions such as hospitals, orphanages and old people’s homes. Last but not least, almost all farms using wind pump installations for water are, in turn, forming small PV-wind hybrid islands all over the country.SolarNamibia has one of the best solar regimes in the world with an average high direct insolation of 2,200 kWh/m2/a and minimum cloud cover. The principal climatic indicator determining the technical potential for solar PV is the global horizontal irradiance (GHI). The areas with the highest GHI are mostly located in the western part of Namibia, from north to south.One of the major solar PV applications in Namibia is the solar water pumping (PVP) in the cattle farms. Solar PV is also use for rural access to modern energy. It consists in small system equipped with an inverter and a storage system (batteries) that provide enough electricity for lighting, radio, TV or fans. Larger solar home systems are also utilized by households having a substantial consumption. They can feed the grid without license if the system is smaller than 500 kV. However, there is no compensation from the power utility. There is no large commercial solar PV plant in Namibia to date.WindNamibia has one of the best wind RES in Africa since it is located in in the more extreme latitudes, away from the atmospheric heating and the earth’s rotation negative impacts. A wind assessment project was carried out by MME and GTZ in 1996 for the region of Luderitz and Walvis Bay (southern coast of Namibia). It showed that both sites have potential for wind power with wind speed around7 m/s. The methodology included a model analysis (WAsP and WindPro Programme) as well as ground measurement (10 m). Recent measurements at 85.7 meters high undertaken in Lüderitz by a potential wind IPP predict a yearly wind speed average reaching 10 m/s with a stable wind direction . Additional potential sites with good wind regime are likely to exist in areas located more in the North (e.g. Henties Bay, Terrace Bay, Mowe Bay). The SAPP has estimated the Namibian potential for wind at 27.201 MW and 36 TWh per year with a relative land use of 824,268 km2.There is currently one wind turbine (220 kW) installed in Namibia. It feed the distribution grid in Erongo Region.Biomass & BiogasIn Namibia, immense land areas are infested with invader bush. It is an important environmental concern because the bush encroachment limits the local biodiversity, the water absorption in the soil and the carrying capacity of livestock. It has been calculated that 26 million hectares of land are invaded in Namibia. With this amount of bush used to produce electricity, the same calculations shows that the potential generation would be 1,100 TWh which at the Namibian scale can be considered as unlimited. Most of this resource is located in the north of the country. The development of Jatropha-based biofuel is potentially high in the north-west of Namibia, i.e. Caprivi and Kavango regions.From 2007 to 2010, the project Combating Bush Encroachment for Namibia’s Development (CBEND) funded by the European Union (N$ 14 million) established the first bush to electricity demonstration plant (250 kW) in Namibia. It was also the first PPA signed by Nampower with an IPP. However, the power plant does not feed electricity yet due to the low power factor of the connecting line.HydroNamibia’s only perennial rivers are the Kunene, Kavango (forming borders with Angola and Zambia in the north) and the Orange River bordering South Africa in the south.In 2010, 64% of the electricity was generated with Ruacana hydropower plant. Ruacana hydropower has now a capacity of 332 MW.Nampower is examining the possibility of installing a second hydropower plant on Kunene River, downstream to Ruacana. The project (Baynes Hydro) has been in the pipelines for many decades. However, political tensions with Angola as well as socio-environmental concerns have restricted the project to a feasibility study. Nowadays, the perspective to supply Southern Africa from a large hydropower plant has raised interests for both parties. The estimated project implementation cost is about US$ 1.3 billion (US$ 10 billion).The deployment of small hydropower plants (6 to 12 MW) along the Orange River for a total capacity of 70 MW is examined by Nampower. The estimated cost is around US$ 5 million to U$ 35 million and it is planned to develop the project as a clean development mechanism activity.

Energy framework

The current energy policy is articulated in the White Paper on Energy Policy of 1998 (WPE). It contains specific policies with regard to RE that guided MME initiatives over the last few years. Between 2007 and 2010, the Namibian Renewable Energy Program (NAMREP) was developed to remove financial, economic, political and public awareness barriers to solar energy. Similarly, the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Capacity Building Program (REEECAP) was implemented to generate information for the implementation of RE and energy efficiency policies formulated in the WPE. Concerning off-grid renewable energy, the support of the MME has been substantial particularly through the OGEMP.The Energy Policy sets six specific national goals for the energy sector:effective governance,security of supply,National Building Codes to Incorporate Renewable Energy Technologies and Energy Efficiency Principlessocial well-beinginvestment and growth,economic competitiveness and efficiency, andsustainabilityThe Strategic Action Plan for the Implementation of Renewable Energy Policies was conducted in 2006, as part of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/Global Environment Facility (GEF) /Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME) project entitled Barrier Removal to Namibian Renewable Energy Programme (NAMREP). Its goal is to provide organisational support and prioritisation of future renewable energy interventions that are in line with the White Paper on Energy Policy. The Strategic Action Plan listed nine development objectives, which were:enhanced capacity of the renewable energy and energy efficiency sector,improved renewable energy and energy efficiency knowledge base,broadened awareness of renewable energy and energy efficiency,equal playing field for renewable energy,improved financing mechanisms for renewable energy technologies,improved security of energy supply,enhanced institutional coordination and integration,improved access to energy, andsustainable development.The Strategic Action Plan was also formulated based on the improvements and additions to the existing institutional environment, including the establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Institute (REEEI). The Strategic Action Plan included 41 policy statements, which ranged from developing and implementing a renewable energy and energy efficiency public awareness strategy, to the establishment of an Electrification Fund and developing renewable energy and energy efficiency guidelines for public institutions. While some of these development objectives have been met, such as the establishment of the REEEI, others are still being implemented or have not been addressed to date.Namibia Renewable Energy Programme (NAMREP)Building upon these objectives, in 2005, the Government of the Republic of Namibia initiated a Renewable Energy Programme with support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF). The Namibia Renewable Energy Programme was designed to increase affordability and access to RE services and accelerate market development for renewable energy technologies by reducing existing barriers, including human capacity, financial, technical, awareness and other market limitations.Namibia Energy Efficiency Programme in Buildings (NEEP)The Namibia Energy Efficiency Programme in Buildings (NEEP) is the major programme in the country that aims to promote the use of energy efficient technologies and practices in Namibia’s commercial and residential building sector. NEEP is co-funded by the GEF and UNDP under the Framework for Promoting Low Greenhouse Gas Buildings. This is a three year programme and is being implemented by the MME and REEEI at the Polytechnic of Namibia.The NEEP project’s objective is geared towards the reduction of Namibia’s energy-related GHG emissions through the nationwide adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices in the commercial and residential building sector, with a focus on government buildings, hospitals, hotels, schools and possibly a sample of residential buildings.

Source
Static Source:
  • Beyond Fire: How to Achieve Sustainable Cooking

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    This report provides an overview of the main technological pathways to fundamentally transform the cooking sector in developing countries to sustainable sources. It provides an analysis of the main technological options and an estimate of their costs and feasibility.

  • Linking Heat and Electricity Systems: Co-generation and District Heating and Cooling Solutions for a Clean Energy Future

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This report highlights two underutilized but fully implementable technologies that efficiently integrate heat and electricity systems, provide flexibility and enhance energy security. It examines what restricts co‑generation and efficient district heating and cooling systems that can help de-carbonize the energy system.

  • Beyond Fire: How to Achieve Sustainable Cooking

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Approach:

    This report provides an overview of the main technological pathways to fundamentally transform the cooking sector in developing countries to sustainable sources. It provides an analysis of the main technological options and an estimate of their costs and feasibility.

  • SMARTer2030 - ICT Solutions for 21st Century Challenges

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    SMARTer2030 is the third instalment in the acclaimed GeSI series of SMART reports, demonstrating the enabling potential of ICT in eight different sectors (from buildings to energy, from transport to agriculture and healthcare), and how ICT solutions can support the transition to a low-carbon economy while delivering business opportunities and improving people's quality of life.

  • SystemTransformation - How Digital Solutions Will Drive Progress Towards the Sustainable Development Goals

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Building on the findings of the GeSI SMARTer2030 report, #SystemTransformation looks at how ICT will be instrumental in the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The report analyzes the current SDGs implementation gaps, identifies the key features that make ICT a fundamental tool to achieve the Goals, and provides a deep-dive into those Goals where the ICT contribution can be most immediate and important.

  • Adaptation Planning with Communities: Practitioner Brief 1

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    The brief provides a conceptual overview of ALP's Community Adaptation Action Planning (CAAP) process, as well as explanations and examples of how it works in practice, based on ALP experiences in Ghana and Niger. It describes how to progress from climate vulnerability and capacity assessments in a participatory community planning process. ALP community plans focused on livelihoods and natural resource issues, but the CAAP process described applies for addressing all climate sensitive sectors, for example health, education, energy, or social safety nets.

  • InnoVentum AB

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Knowledge partner
    Country of registration:
    Sweden
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Knowledge Partner
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    The mission of InnoVentum is to bring Power to the People. Innoventum has developed and commercialised a range of environmentally friendly renewable energy solutions: small wind and solar installations as well as hybrid wind-solar stations. The 12 m towers of Innoventum are made of wood and can be easily installed without a crane. Innoventum has experience in configuring and installing renewable energy mini-grids with battery and diesel backup.

  • Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research

    Type: 
    Organisation
    Country of registration:
    Spain
    Relation to CTCN:
    Network Member
    Sector(s) of expertise:

    The Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology Research (Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas - CIEMAT) is a public research organization focused on energy and environment and the technologies related to them. The CIEMAT main lines of action are the study, development, promotion and optimization of various sources as renewable energies, study of their impact on the environment, development of new technologies; not forgetting areas of basic research such as high-energy physics and molecular and cellular biology.

  • IFDC Perspectives

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    Perspectives is a biannual publication of the International Fertilizer
    Development Center (IFDC). Unless otherwise noted, printed material
    published in Perspectives is in the public domain and may be freely
    reproduced. Source acknowledgment and a copy of any reproduction are
    requested. Electronic versions in English and French are available at ifdc.org.