Connecting countries to climate technology solutions
English Arabic Chinese (Simplified) French Russian Spanish Yoruba


Official Name:
Kingdom of Spain

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Ms. Lorena Prado Orcoyen
Spain, Annex I
+34 91 597 68 44

Energy profile

Spain (2013)

Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

Electricity transmission has also been expanding on the in international level. Spain is connected to Portugal, France, Andorra, and Morocco. The largest of these interconnections is between Spain and its neighbour on the peninsula, Portugal. Spain, in 2010, exported more than they had imported; 8,333 GWh more energy was exported abroad than was imported into the country.

Renewable energy potential

SolarSpain is one of the most advanced countries in the development of solar energy, and it is one of the European countries with the most hours of sunshine. Spain ranks second in the world among both photovoltaic and thermoelectric solar power.The solar potential for Spain is amongst the best in Europe, if not the best. Spain and Portugal receive the most annual global horizontal solar irradiance on the European continent. The top five regions in Spain with the highest solar irradiation and thus the largest power capacity are Murcia, Andalusia, Extremadura, Ceuta y Melilla and Castilla de la Mancha with a potential amount of energy of more than 1,900 kWh/m² and with a potential output of about 1,400kWh/kWp. Around 10% of Spain’s energy comes from solar power, which is five times more than the average of 2% in the rest of the world.Wind EnergyThere are pockets of the country that far exceed the 6.5 m/s threshold; the northwest region of Galicia is a great example of this. The southernmost tip of Andalucía is also an area with more than enough wind resources for development. Another important note is the wind resource available offshore. Most of the he wind speed offshore well exceeds the 6.5 or greater m/s limit.Installed wind capacity in Spain reached 22,785 MW in 2012 with the addition of 1,112 MW, according to the Spanish Wind Energy Association’s (AEE) Wind Observatory. The growth has been similar to 2011, which had an increase of 1,050 MW. Spain is the fourth country in the world in terms of installed capacity and produced 48,156 GWh of electricity from wind in 2012. In 2012, Spain’s electrical energy demand decreased 1.8% from 2011 to 269.16 TWh. Wind energy met 17.8 % of this demand and was the third largest contributing technology in 2012.On 2nd February 2013 wind power achieved again a new record in electricity production reaching a peak of 17.056 MW and an average production per hour of 19.918 MWh.Biomass & BiofuelA study from the University of Zaragoza sought to find the energy potential of agro-industrial residue. The sources of residue used in the study involved olive mills, wineries, forestry residue, nut processing, rice mills, wastewater from meat processing from meat processing and dairies, and breweries. The energy potential for forestry and agricultural residues is split between technical limits and economic potential. First, the technical limit takes into consideration the location of resources and “the technical characteristics (including performance) of the equipment used for transforming the resource into electrical energy”. It was found that the technical limit was 32.7 TWh/year. Economic potential, which takes the generation costs into account, leads to a significantly lower potential, 12.87 TWh/year. An important note is that as time progresses and newer technologies are developed that generation costs may go down, thus increasing the amount of potential this source can generate. The potential, looking at it from the technical limit or the economic potential, can be anywhere from 12% of 2010 demand to about 5%. The technical limit and economic potential would amount to 9% and 3% of expected 2020 demand.GeothermalGeothermal sites with a high enough temperature exist in Canarias (Canary Islands), particularly the islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife.HydroHydropower was one of the three renewable energies that contributed heavily towards Spain generating 35% renewable power in 2010. A good way to measure water supply is by measuring the average annual rainfall. The high average rainfall in the north, particularly the northwestern region, makes it the most suitable in the country for hydropower. Hydropower has great potential to add to the energy sector. Theoretically, hydropower is capable of providing 138 TWh of power; this estimation is after water consumption is taken into account.A more realistic potential was estimated at about 64 TWh/year. This would be enough to cover about 23% of the 2010 demand, and 18% of 2020 demand. Already over half of this estimation has been achieved; hydro plants generated 38.6 TWh and small hydro plants (≤ 10 MW) covered 6.8 TWh.

Energy framework

National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP)The National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) for Spain was submitted in July 2010. The target according to Annex I of Directive 2009/28/EC is 20% for the year 2020 and the projected NREAP share in that year is 22.7%.  According to the projection, the most important contribution in the year 2020 is expected from wind power (78.3 TWh or 6729 ktoe, 31% of all renewable energy). Second important contribution is expected from biomass (renewable heating and cooling) (4950 ktoe, 22% of all renewable energy). The third largest contribution is from hydropower (39.6 TWh or 3404 ktoe, 15% of all renewable energy). Wind power contributes with 38.0 GW (78.3 TWh) in the year 2020 (onshore wind 35.0 GW and 70.5 TWh, offshore wind 3.0 GW and 7.8 TWh). For solar photovoltaic the 2020 contribution is projected to be 8.4 GW (14.3 TWh). For solar thermal the 2020 contribution is projected to be 644 ktoe. The two most important biofuels are projected to contribute 3100 ktoe (biodiesel) and 400 ktoe (bioethanol / bio-ETBE) by 2020. The renewable electricity production from solid biomass amounts to 7.4 TWh (636 ktoe) and for biogas it is expected to be 2.6 TWh (225 ktoe). The consumption of renewable heat is expected to amount to 4850 ktoe for solid biomass and 100 ktoe for biogas.National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEP)The new National Energy Efficiency Action Plan’s goal is to reduce final energy consumption per unit of output by 2% annually between 2011 and 2020, or 133, 000 kilotonnes of oil equivalent (ktoe) (965 million barrels) of primary energy in this period. Its implementation is expected to mobilise investment worth EUR 45,985 million.In addition to the national policy, many autonomous communities (Regional Authorities in Spain) have developed their own Energy Policies, including renewable energy targets. The autonomous communities (Regional Governments) manage almost 50% of the national budget. Therefore, they are decisive in the implementation of RE plans. Some of the most relevant regional energy plans are:Basque Country: “Euskadi Energy Strategy 3E-2010”.Catalonia: “Energy Plan 2006-2015”.Madrid: “Energy Plan from the Community of Madrid 2004-2012”.Andalusia: “Andalusian Energy Sustainability Plan 2007-2013”.Valencia: “Wind Energy Plan from the Community of ValenciaGalicia: “Promotion Program of Solar Energy in Galicia” and “Wind Energy Plan of Galicia”.Energy Sector Plan for the Balearic Islands 2015 (currently under revision)An important source of subsidies for investments in renewable energy projects is the Institute for Diversification and Energy Saving (IDAE).- Third-Party Financing (TPF): this is one of the most appropriate mechanisms available to undertake investment projects in energy saving and efficiency and energy generation using various sources, including renewable energy sources. The IDAE, the main promoter of this financing mechanism in Spain, has been using it successfully since 1987. (IDAE) which offers the following support:- Project finance and Provision of services: a financing mechanism applicable to projects investing in energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, which have undergone a prior economic/technical feasibility analysis. It is a new model of financial collaboration which entails drawing up and signing two contracts: framework collaboration and service provision contract and a project finance contract (i.e. a business loan).- Program of aid for strategic projects: This is a line of IDAE support aimed at financing energy saving and efficiency projects. The programme is set in the context of the IDAE's direct actions under the 2008-2012 Action Plan for the 2004-2012 Spanish Energy Saving and Efficiency Strategy (E4).- Program of Voluntary Agreements with companies involved in the thermal use of biomass in buildings (Biomcasa). This program aims at establishing a financing system to ease access to hot water production systems using biomass in buildings. This program is framed in the Renewables Energy Plan 2005-2010.- Program GEOTCASA. Financial schemes to authorised companies for the installation of geothermal equipment in buildings. The programme has been set up within the context of the strategic goals of the Renewable Energies Plan 2005-2010.- Program SOLCASA. Financial schemes to authorised companies for the installation of solar thermal equipment in buildings. As the programme GEOTCASA, this tool has been created following the goals defined by the Renewable Energies Plan 2005-2020 and aims at offering financial support (estimated budget up to 5.000.000 Euros) to equip buildings with solar thermal installations to produce hot water as well as heating/cooling services. Use of the incentives is subjected to installation of the equipment through authorized companies selected by the IDAE.

Static Source: