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Denmark

Official Name:
Kingdom of Denmark

National Designated Entity

Type of organisation:
Government/Ministry
Name:
Mr. Hans Jakob Eriksen
Position:
Special Advisor
Phone:
+45 3392 2800, +45 4172 9078
Emails:
hajae@kebmin.dk

Energy profile

Denmark (2013)

Type: 
Energy profile
Energy profile
Extent of network

As in most countries, the electricity grid was built after the Second World War and designed for central generation, which was characteristic of the energy system. As a consequence, Denmark’s transmission network operator has experienced problems to balance its grid and several times the system was close to a breakdown (Jensen 2002). This is why the expansion and transformation of the grid is one of the main topics of the Danish electricity agenda. Denmark is a pioneering country when it comes to implementing and testing new network concepts. The transmission operator Energinet.dk is currently implementing the cell concept, shifting more responsibilities for network control to the distribution networks and enabling islanding of individual cells.

Renewable energy potential

SolarOver the last few years, large solar installations for district heating have been established in a number of locations in Denmark. The contribution from solar energy is expected to be 16 ktoe by 2020 as opposed to 10 ktoe in 2005 (0.4 PJ in 2005, 0.7 in 2020)Wind EnergyDenmark is one of the most aggressive countries in the world for wind power and has a relatively long history using it. Since 1988 Denmark has built nearly 3,400 MW of wind capacity. Currently, wind power provides about 20% of Denmark’s electricity through more than 5,200 wind turbines, and this is an increase from 2% in 1990. The vast majority of this wind turbine-generated electricity is onshore, but as available land is becoming scarce, an increasing number of wind turbines are found in offshore wind farms.According to the Danish Energy Agency, this aggressive approach to wind power has reduced the country’s dependence on fossil fuels and has made Denmark one of the largest European energy technology exporters. Their data show that since 1980 Danish GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has increased by 78%, their energy consumption has remained flat, and their CO2 emissions have decreased by more than most any other European country.Denmark’s goal is to meet 50% of its electricity needs with wind energy by 2025, including a near doubling of their wind power capacity to 6,000 MW. They are also investing in the infrastructure to support electric cars, so that wind power will be powering some of their transportation needs.Biomass and BiogasIn 2010, solid biomass and biogas contributed 3,400 GWh to gross renewable electricity production, representing 26% of total gross renewable electricity production. All of this electricity was generated in the form of CHP. Biomass‐fuelled CHP plants have been a common part of the Danish electricity and district heating supply for decades. There are over 200 district heating plants and 15 CHP plants fuelled by solid biomass and 30 biogas‐fired CHP plants.Biomass consumption (wood and straw) in the Danish electricity sector is divided between both power stations and local CHP plants. Around two‐thirds of the straw and wood is consumed by power stations, while one‐third is fired at the 15 or so small local biomass plants. Some 147 local CHP plants – with a combined capacity of 80 MW – use biogas as a fuel.  In 2010, power generation from biofuels totalled 3,068 GWh. It has remained relatively stable from one year to the next, but biofuels‐based power generating capacity has been increasing in Denmark in recent years.Denmark is a leader in terms of energy produced from waste, followed by Switzerland and far ahead of IEA third‐ and fourth‐placed Sweden and Austria. In terms of consumption, 91% of waste is used in CHP plants and the remaining part in heat‐only plants. In 2009, nearly half of solid biomass supply was used for heating purposes in the residential sector, 29% in CHP plants, and 17% in heat-producing plants.HydroHydropower makes a very small contribution to renewable electricity supply. Denmark has 38 small‐scale hydroelectric power plants, which in 2009 generated a total of 19,795 MWh. The largest plant, Tangeværket at Gudenåen, has an installed capacity of 3.9 MW.

Energy framework

Energy Strategy 2050: From Coal, Oil, and Gas to Green EnergyThe hallmark of Denmark’s energy policy is independence from fossil fuels. In fact, the Danish Government’s February 2011 Energy Plan, called “Energy Strategy 2050: From Coal, Oil, and Gas to Green Energy”, states this overall goal in its title. The plan states its main goal is independence from coal, oil, and gas by 2050, which in turn will result in Denmark maintaining a secure stable supply of affordable energy and helping to limit global climate change. In addition, achieving this goal will provide economic opportunities for Danish green energy technologies within its own borders as well as in the global market, and will minimize Denmark competing for a shrinking supply of fossil fuel supplies, many of which are in unstable countries.In March 2012 a new political agreement on energy was reached in Denmark. This Energy Agreement is an important step towards fulfilling the 2050 target. 95% of the members of Parliament -i.e. all parties but one- stand behind this Agreement. The Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy in 2050. The Agreement covers the period 2012 – 2020.National Renewable Energy Action PlanIn 2020, the Danish Renewable Energy Action Plan expects almost 52% of total electricity consumption to be met by renewables. Almost 60% of this will be wind, with biomass, essentially, making up the rest.The NREAP thus indicates that Denmark is on track to meet and, indeed, exceed its 30% RES target by 0.4 percentage points. In the long term, Danish plans are for 100% renewables. The document indicates that the excess RES is available for use in co-operation mechanisms with other Member States. Denmark’s action plan focuses to a large extent on managing consumption, and only a very slight increase in electricity demand is expected between 2010 and 2020. Moreover, the plan indicates that future policies aim to reduce energy consumption in 2020 by 4% compared to 2006.The Agreement lists a large number of actions to be taken during the period 2012 – 2020. These actions will result in more than 35% renewable energy in final energy consumption in 2020. As the Agreement does not go beyond 2020, it does not lay out in detail the path from 2020 to 2050, which will lead to 100% renewable energy in 2050. The Agreement includes 62 actions covering the following areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy for electricity production, district heating, combined heat and power production, use of renewable energy in households and industries, smart grids, biogas production, use of electricity and renewable energy for transport, research, development and demonstration and finally financing of the Agreement.Feed-in tariff (see below section “regulatory framework”)

Source
Static Source:
  • 8th CTCN Advisory Board Meeting

    Type: 
    Event
    Date:
    Tuesday, August 23, 2016 - Thursday, August 25, 2016 Europe/Copenhagen
    Country:
    Denmark

    The Climate Technology Centre and Network is accountable to the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the UNFCCC through the CTCN Advisory Board. The Advisory Board meets twice per year and provides direction on the CTCN’s fulfillment of the COP’s guidance.

    The Eighth meeting of the Advisory Board will take place at UN City (Auditorium 3) in Copenhagen from 23-25 August 2016.

  • The co-benefits of sustainable city projects

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    C40 Cities is a network of the world's mega-cities committed to addressing climate change. In recognition of the fact that the largest cities of the world are the primary contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions, the network has conducted research into the co-benefits of sustainable city projects, examining and evaluating case studies from around the world, and across different sectors.

  • Urban Poor, Video narrated by Angélique Kidjo, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    Although urban centers are often ill-prepared to meet the basic needs of rapidly expanding populations, the urban poor are incredibly resourceful people, with their own networks and the proven capacity to save and invest in the betterment of their communities. Climate change can stimulate action that improves and transforms the most vulnerable urban communities.

    This video, narrated by UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador Angélique Kidjo, tells the stories of the winners of the 2015 Momentum for Change Awards, under the Urban Poor category.

  • Climate ADAPT

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    The European Climate Adaptation Platform (Climate-ADAPT) aims to support Europe in adapting to climate change . It is an initiative of the European Commission and helps users to access and share information on:

    Expected climate change in Europe
    Current and future vulnerability of regions and sectors
    National and transnational adaptation strategies
    Adaptation case studies and potential adaptation options
    Tools that support adaptation planning

  • QUICKScan

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    Policy making is required in cases in which a public good needs to be either maintained or created, and private or civil initiatives cannot deal alone with this. Policy making thus starts with a phase of problem identification and determining whether there is a problem that needs to be dealt with. Rapidly evolving contexts exert influence on policy makers who have to take decisions much faster and more accurately than in the past, also facing greater complexity. There is a need for a method that lowers the lead time of the exploratory phase of the policy cycle.

  • Developing 2°C compatible investment criteria

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2°C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations.

  • Biennial Assessment and Overview of Climate Finance Flows 2014

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This guide, aimed at climate change negotiators, gives synopsis of the key elements in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)’s Biennial Assessment (BA) of climate finance flows. It also provides an overview of recommendations of the UNFCCC’s Standing Committee on Finance (SCF) to the Conference of Parties. The guide also provides some views on how the identified recommendations can support future international negotiations.

  • Towards resilience and transformation for cities within a finite planet

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Approach:

    Sattherwaite and Dodman’s editorial is an introduction to a special issue of environment and urbanisation which focusses on climate change responses in cities. It usefully summarises the state of debates about the meanings and complexities of the resilience and transformation concepts, pointing to the latest literature. It focuses on the following areas:

    • cities capacity for change in the context of powerful corporate and political interests;
  • Drought Risk Reduction Framework and Practices: Contributing to the Implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:
    Sectors:

    This document elaborates a framework for understanding drought and vulnerability to drought and provides guidance on actions to reduce the risks associated with drought. It discusses drought policy and governance, risk identification and early warning, awareness and knowledge management and effective mitigation and preparedness measures. These framework elements are illustrated with practical examples, techniques and extensive background information.

  • Assessing the ecological footprint

    Type: 
    Publication
    Publication date:
    Objective:

    This report sets out to assess the scientific validity of what it calls the WWF's 'doomsday prophecy', as outlined in the NGO's Living Planet Report 2002. The Danish authors argue that WWF has produced one in a long line of articles, stretching back to Malthus' essay on the principle of population, that predict disaster as a result of human demand on natural resources outstripping supply.The paper outlines the concept of the ecological footprint, one which has developed out of the commonly used carrying capacity measure of sustainable use of natural resources.