Connecting countries to climate technology solutions
English Arabic Chinese (Simplified) French Russian Spanish Yoruba

The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research

Country of registration:
Acronym:
TNO
Relation to CTCN:
Consortium Partner
Knowledge Partner
CTCN Keyword Matches:
Sector(s) of expertise

TNO is an independent research organisation which connects people and knowledge to create innovations that boost the competitive strength of industry and the well-being of society in a sustainable way. This is our mission and it is what drives us, the over 3,400 professionals at TNO, in our work every day. We work in collaboration with partners and focus on nine domains.

Organisation name (local):
Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland
Acronym (local):
TNO
Active in:
Worldwide

    Contributions

    • Hybrid electric vehicles

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      One approach to lowering the CO2 emission from traffic is the hybridization of vehicles. A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct power sources, i.e. hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Vehicles employed in urban areas like small passenger cars, local delivery trucks and city busses benefit from hybridization and show substantially lower CO2 emissions, ranging from 23 to 43% depending on the traffic dynamics.

    • Integrated gasification combined-cycle

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Coal gasification technology, often referred to as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), is the process of gasifying coal to produce electricity. The coal is gasified by burning finely-crushed coal in an environment with less than half the amount of oxygen needed to fully burn the coal. Essentially, the coal is not burned directly but undergoes a reaction with oxygen and steam. This produces what is known as synthetic gas or “syngas.” This gas is then combusted in a combined cycle generator to produce electricity.

    • Ocean thermal energy conversion

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Marine renewables, also known as ocean energy, refers to a broad range of technologies that extract energy from the ocean; this energy can be in the form of ocean waves, tidal movements or thermal gradients.  Marine renewables are, in general, at a relatively early stage in their development and, as such, the methods of converting these potential energy sources into useful electrical power are still highly diversified, with many technologies competing for commercial viability.

    • Promotion of non-motorised transport

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Non-motorised transport (NMT) is often a key element of successfully encouraging clean urban transport. It can be a very attractive mode of transport for relatively short distances, which make up the largest share of trips in cities. The key to reversing the trend towards more private vehicle use is making walking and cycling attractive, together with improving public transport. This can be done by a range of activities including construction of sidewalks and bike lanes, bike sharing programmes, urban planning and pedestrian-oriented development.

    • Tidal energy

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Marine renewables, also known as ocean energy, refers to a broad range of technologies that extract energy from the ocean; this energy can be in the form of ocean waves, tidal movements or thermal gradients.

    • Wave energy

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Marine renewables, also known as ocean energy, refers to a broad range of technologies that extract energy from the ocean; this energy can be in the form of ocean waves, tidal movements or thermal gradients. Marine renewables are, in general, at a relatively early stage in their development and, as such, the methods of converting these potential energy sources into useful electrical power are still highly diversified, with many technologies competing for commercial viability.

    • Small-scale Combined Heat and power

      Type: 
      Technology
      Objective:

      Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompasses a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).

    • Large-scale Combined Heat and Power

      Type: 
      Technology
      Objective:

      Co-generation is the combined production of useful thermal energy and electricity (Combined Heat and Power, CHP) from the same primary fuel. CHP can take on many forms and encompass a range of technologies, but will always be based upon an efficient, integrated system that combines electricity production and heat recovery. By using the heat output from the electricity production for heating or industrial applications, CHP plants generally convert 75-80% of the fuel source into useful energy, while the most modern CHP plants reach efficiencies of 90% or more (IPCC, 2007).

    • Fuel cells for mobile applications

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Fuel cells are used to produce electricity. They are considered a promising technology to replace conventional combustion engines in vehicles. Fuel cells may also replace batteries in portable electronic equipment. The most widely used types of fuel cells for mobile devices are Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) which are often used in vehicles, and Direct Methanol fuel cells, used in portable applications. PEM fuel cells use hydrogen or certain alcohols such as methanol as fuel.

    • Smart grid

      Type: 
      Technology
      Objective:

      The smart grid is the state-­‐of-­‐the-­‐art technology for electrical system that can sensibly execute the operations to all interconnected elements -­‐ from generator to consumers. Smart grid simply converts the conventional power grid towards the modern grid in order to regulate sustainable, economic and reliable electricity (Massoud &Wollenberg, 2005 and Gellings, 2009). Smart grid intelligently executes operations from primary and secondary generators through the transmission and distribution network to the different types of consumers.

    • Heating- Ventilation and Air Conditioning

      Type: 
      Technology
      Objective:

      Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems supply fresh air and condition the indoor air temperature and humidity of a building. HVAC is reported as the key energy user (37%) in US buildings (WBCSD, 2008), accounting for 59% of the energy used in China commercial buildings in 2000 (Levine et al., 2007). Therefore, HVAC is a key component of climate change mitigation potential in the building sector.

    • Efficient air conditioning systems

      Type: 
      Technology
      Objective:

      Cooling is becoming a rapidly emerging demand in developing countries, which signifies that the building design and shell measures need to reduce cooling loads, and the efficiency of air-conditioning will need to be improved. Air conditioning systems are implemented in numerous sectors, namely buildings, industry and transport. They are distinguished in two main categories, room air conditioners and central air conditioners.

    • Biodiesel

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Liquid biofuels for transport, including biodiesel, have to a certain extent been in use for a very long time. In recent years however, they are enjoying renewed interest in both developed and developing countries as a result of the need to curb rising emissions from the transport sector, reduce dependence on expensive fossil oil imports and increase farm incomes.

    • Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      A plug in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle with the ability to recharge its energy storage with electricity from an off-board power source such as a grid. PHEVs have the potential to displace a significant amount of fuel in the next 10 to 20 years. It is estimated that they can reduce fuel consumption by up to 45% relative to that of a comparable combustion engine vehicle.

    • Liquefied Natural Gas in trucks and cars

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      The use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in transport is a suitable option to power large long-distance trucks in areas where gas is transported as liquefied natural gas because there are indigenous gas supplies and no gas network. The use of LNG in passenger cars is far less viable because on average passenger cars stand idle more often, which would give rise to high evaporative losses.

    • Pulverised Coal Combustion with higher efficiency

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      Pulverised coal power plants account for about 97% of the world's coal-fired capacity. The conventional types of this technology have an efficiency of around 35%. For a higher efficiency of the technology supercritical and ultra-supercritical coal-fired technologies have been developed. These technologies can combust pulverised coal and produce steam at higher temperatures and under a higher pressure, so that an efficiency level of 45% can be reached (ultra-supercritical plants).

    • Modal shift in freight transport

      Type: 
      Technology
      Sectors:
      Objective:

      The modal split for freight transport varies greatly by region, and is largely determined by geographical and economic factors. However there is a common trend towards more use of road transport, at the expense of rail and water transport. The latter modes have a substantially better environmental profile, but are limited by longer delivery times and the necessity of pre- and post-haulage by truck, i.e. inter-modal transport. In the logistic chain used nowadays, there are small local stocks and fast on demand delivery is required.